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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 438-441

Epidemiology of blood stream infections in pediatric patients at a Tertiary Care Cancer Centre


1 Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
B Arora
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.175311

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Background: Blood stream infections (BSI) are among the most common causes of preventable deaths in children with cancer in a developing country. Knowledge of its etiology as well as antibiotic sensitivity is essential not only for planning antimicrobial policy, but also the larger infection prevention and control measures. Aims: To describe the etiology and sensitivity of BSI in the pediatric oncology unit at a tertiary cancer center. Materials and Methods: All the samples representative of BSI sent from pediatric oncology unit during the period of January to December, 2013 were included in the study, and analyzed for microbiological spectrum with their antibiotic sensitivity. Results: A total of 4198 samples were representative of BSI. The overall cultures positivity rate was 6.97% with higher positivity rate (10.28%) from central lines. Of the positive cultures, 208 (70.9%) were Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), 71 (24.2%) were Gram-positive organisms, and 14 (4.7%) were Candida species. Lactose fermenting Enterobacteriaceae i.e., Escherichia coli (28.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.1%), and Enterobacter (4.8%) accounted for 55.3% of all GNB. Pseudomonas accounted for 53 (25.5%) and Acinetobacter 19 (9.1%) of GNB. Among Gram-positive isolates, staphylococci were the most frequent (47.8%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae 17 (23.9%), beta-hemolytic streptococci 11 (15.5%), and enterococci 9 (12.68%). Of GNB, 45.7% were pan-sensitive, 24% extended spectrum beta–lactamase (ESBL) producers, 27% were resistant to carbapenems, and 3.4% resistant to colistin. Pseudomonas was most sensitive, and Klebsiella was least sensitive of GNB. Of the staphylococcal isolates, 41.67% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 10% of Coagulase Negative Stapylococci (CONS) were methicillin. Conclusion: A high degree of ESBL producers and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is concerning; with emerging resistance to colistin, raising the fear of a return to the preantibiotic era. An urgent intervention including creating awareness and establishment of robust infection control and antibiotic stewardship program is the most important need of the hour.






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