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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-9

Unique roles of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer-II


Department of Pathology, J.N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
F Alam
Department of Pathology, J.N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.175591

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Applications of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer are becoming increasingly popular. Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are classifiable as liposomes, polymeric-micelles, dendrimers, nano-cantilevers, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, magnetic-nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and certain miscellaneous nanoparticles. Here, we present review of the structure, function and utilities of the various approved, under trial and pretrial nanodevices applicable in the cancer care and medicine. The liposomes are phospholipid-vesicles made use in carrying drugs to the target site minimizing the bio-distribution toxicity and a number of such theranostics have been approved for clinical practice. Newly worked out liposomes and polymeric micelles are under the trail phases for nano-therapeutic utility. A multifunctional dendrimer conjugate with imaging, targeting and drug molecules of paclitaxel has been recently synthesized for cancer theranostic applications. Nano-cantilever based assays are likely going to replace the conventions methods of chemical pathological investigations. Carbon nanotubes are emerging for utility in regenerative and cancer medicine. Quantum dots hold great promise for the micro-metastasis and intra-operative tumor imaging. Important applications of magnetic nanoparticles are in the cardiac stents, photodynamic therapy and liver metastasis imaging. The AuNPs have been employed for cell imaging, computed tomography and cancer therapy. Besides these categories, miscellaneous other nanoparticles are being discovered for utility in the cancer diagnosis and disease management. However, the use of nanoparticles should be cautious since the toxic effects of nanoparticles are not well-known. The use of nanoparticles in the clinical practice and their toxicity profile require further extensive research.






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