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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 270-275

Conventional cytology, visual tests and evaluation of P16INK4A as a biomarker in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Oxford Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, Bengaluru, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India
3 Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
S Rajaram
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.176729

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Objectives: (1) To detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using Papanicolaou test (PAP test), visual tests (visual inspection after the application of acetic acid [VIA], visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine [VILI]), colposcopy, and biopsy. (2) To study the biomarker p16INK4A expression by immunostaining. Materials And Methods: Experimental study was conducted from November 2009 to April 2011. 1500 women were screened for cancer cervix using conventional PAP test, VIA, and VILI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of these tests were calculated individually, sequentially, and in parallel. Women having positive results underwent colposcopy and biopsy if required. p16INK4Aexpression in biopsy samples was studied using immunohistochemistry. Results: All test positive cases (n = 235) underwent colposcopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of PAP with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) as cut-off was 40%, 99.25%, 35.25%, and 99.39%; VIA was 60%, 93.06%, 8.03%, and 99.56% and VILI was 80%, 86.06%, 5.4%, and 99.76%, respectively. When PAP, VIA, and VILI were used in parallel sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV improved to 100%, 85.18%, 6.38%, and 100%, respectively. Colposcopic abnormalities were detected in 83 and biopsy proven CIN in 15. p16INK4A expression was seen in eight of 15 CIN cases. Conclusions:(1) PAP test and visual techniques are complementary. (2) p16INK4Aexpression was seen in majority of CIN 2 lesions suggesting a higher grade lesion.


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