|LETTER TO THE EDITOR
|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 465-467
Secondary pancreatic involvement by precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as acute pancreatitis
YK Yadav, V Mallya, C Ahluwalia, O Gupta
Department of Pathology, Safdarjung Hospital and V. M. M. College, New Delhi, India
|Date of Web Publication||18-Feb-2016|
Y K Yadav
Department of Pathology, Safdarjung Hospital and V. M. M. College, New Delhi
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Yadav Y K, Mallya V, Ahluwalia C, Gupta O. Secondary pancreatic involvement by precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as acute pancreatitis. Indian J Cancer 2015;52:465-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Yadav Y K, Mallya V, Ahluwalia C, Gupta O. Secondary pancreatic involvement by precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as acute pancreatitis. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jun 27];52:465-7. Available from: http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp?2015/52/3/465/176691
Pancreatic infiltration with leukemic cells is a rare manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and it is even more rare in the T-cell variant of ALL. The pancreatitis in ALL is either due to hypercalcaemia or chemotherapy, direct involvement of pancreas by leukemic cells is seldom seen., Our case is a 25 year old non-alcoholic female who gave a short history of fever and epigastric pain (<48 hrs). On examination there was bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Her hemoglobin was 8.4 gm/dl, total leucocyte count was 1,10,000/µl and platelets were 40,000/µl. Peripheral smear showed presence of 87% blasts cells with convoluted to irregular nuclei and scanty cytoplasm [Figure 1]. Bone marrow aspirate was diluted with blood and showed complete replacement of marrow by blasts [Figure 2]. Immunophenotyping of bone marrow aspirate showed blasts positive for CD1a, CD3, CD7 and CD34 and negative for CD13, CD10 and CD20. Patient also had concomitant elevated enzymes: Amylase - 253U/L (normal <132 U/L); lipase - 285 U/L (normal <60 U/L). Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax and abdomen showed hypodense lesions in pancreas. Pancreas was bulky but there was no necrosis seen. So, it was grade B according to Balthazar scoring. CT Severity Index score was 1 i.e., mild pancreatitis [Figure 3]. Patient had no gall stone and serum calcium level was 9.1 mg/dl. She also had no history of having received any chemotherapy. The patient received intensive treatment with analgesics along with prophylactic antibiotics, intravenous fluids and alimentation. Despite receiving prophylactic antibiotics, the patient developed pulmonary infectionand died of septicemia.
|Figure 1: Peripheral smear showing blasts with convoluted nucleus. Giemsa stain, ×1000|
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|Figure 2: Bone marrow smear showing complete replacement by blasts. Giemsa stain, ×1000|
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|Figure 3: CT of the thorax and abdomen showed hypodense lesions (arrow mark) in the pancreas, suggestive of pancreatitis|
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ALL is a neoplastic disorder that is rapidly fatal if untreated. T-ALL comprises about 15% of cases of childhood ALL. It is more common in adolescent than in younger children and more common in males than females. T cell ALL comprises approximately 25% of cases of adult ALL. These patients have increased risk for induction failure and early relapse. Thymus, lymph nodes, skin, tonsil, spleen, CNS and testis in male may get involved.
Pancreatic infiltration of leukemic cells is a very rare manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pancreatic enlargement in ALL is unusual and pancreatic involvement is often associated with biliary obstruction, cholestasis and pancreatitis.
Acute Pancreatitis in association with ALL have been reported previously, but they were mainly related to chemotherapeutic agents, namely L-asparaginase. There have been a few case reports of acute pancreatitis associated with hypercalcemia due to adult T-cell leukemia (ATLL) and one case report documented invasion of the pancreas by ALL lymphoblasts in a case of ATLL.,
In view of the above details, we conclude that pancreatitis in this patient was due to leukemic infiltration of the pancreas. Only few cases of precursor T-cell ALL with infiltration of pancreas have been reported in literature, most cases were of paediatric age group., Acute pancreatitis related to involvement of the pancreas by precursor T-cell leukemia in an adult is very rare and not reported so far. This case report shows clinically proven acute pancreatitis related to involvement of the pancreas by precursor T-cell leukemia in an adult.
| » Conclusion|| |
Acute pancreatitis associated with T cell ALL is induced not only by chemotherapy or hypercalcaemia, but can also be directly related to invasion of the pancreas by leukemic cells.
Supplementary Information [Additional file 1]
| » References|| |
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]