Indian Journal of Cancer
Home  ICS  Feedback Subscribe Top cited articles Login 
Users Online :1074
Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Navigate here
  Search
 
  
Resource links
 »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
 »  Article in PDF (362 KB)
 »  Citation Manager
 »  Access Statistics
 »  Reader Comments
 »  Email Alert *
 »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
 »  Abstract
 » Introduction
 »  Materials and Me...
 » Results
 » Discussion
 » Conclusion
 » Acknowledgment
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2306    
    Printed33    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded248    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 


 
  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 50-53
 

Predictors of Iranian women's intention to first papanicolaou test practice: An application of protection motivation theory


1 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Knowledge Utilization Research Center, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Family Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication28-Apr-2016

Correspondence Address:
L Hassani
Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: The Iran University of Medical Sciences, Grant Number 91-04-27-20508, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.180857

Rights and Permissions

 » Abstract 

Background and Aim: Given the importance of papanicolaou (Pap) test in the early detection and timely treatment of cervical cancer, present study was designed to determine predictors of a sample of Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 240 women referral to the 30 primary health care clinics were selected. They completed a developed scale based on PMT variables including intention, perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy and self-efficacy. Path analysis was used to determine the association between predictive factors and intention. Results: The results showed that PMT had goodness of fit with a χ2/df = 2.37, df = 28, P= 0.001 and RMSEA = 0.076. PMT explained 42% of the variance in women's intention to get first Pap smear test. Self-efficacy (b = 0.55, P< 0.001) and response efficacy (b = 0.19, P< 0.001) were found to be the predictors of intention. Conclusion: These findings may be used to develop tailored, theory-based educational interventions associated with Pap testing among women.


Keywords: Intention, papanicolaou smear, path analysis, protection motivation theory


How to cite this article:
Dehdari T, Hassani L, Shojaeizadeh D, Hajizadeh E, Nedjat S, Abedini M. Predictors of Iranian women's intention to first papanicolaou test practice: An application of protection motivation theory. Indian J Cancer 2016;53:50-3

How to cite this URL:
Dehdari T, Hassani L, Shojaeizadeh D, Hajizadeh E, Nedjat S, Abedini M. Predictors of Iranian women's intention to first papanicolaou test practice: An application of protection motivation theory. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 24];53:50-3. Available from: http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp?2016/53/1/50/180857



 » Introduction Top


Cervical cancer is the second prevalent cancer among women.[1],[2] A review of the literature shows that screening programs such as Papanicolaou (Pap) smear can prevent up to 90% of this kind of cancer among women.[3],[4] Pap test is an effective method in early detection of abnormal precancerous cells and timely treatment of cervical cancer.[3] Despite the important role that Pap test plays in preventing cervical cancer, only 27.1% of the Iranian women have reported getting at least one Pap test in their life.[5]

Current studies show that several factors such as fear of the result of the test, misconceptions and problematic beliefs about cervical cancer, lack of knowledge regarding benefits of Pap test, previous negative experience, inadequate trained health professionals and fund, cultural obstacles such as embarrassment of pelvic examination, less health literacy and so on could be considered for poor practice of Pap test among women.[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] It is note-worthy that socio-cultural differences may also limit the generalization of these predictors.[12] Recognizing the determinants of Pap testing in different cultures may assist practitioners and health educators to developing tailored interventions.

In this study, protection motivation theory (PMT) was used as a theoretical framework to recognize the factors influencing the Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice. In this model, it is proposed that protection motivation (i.e., intention to practice a specific behavior) results from two processes of coping and threat appraisal and it is a positive function of four variables consisting of severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, and a negative function of two variables consisting of the rewards associated with maladaptive responses and the response costs of the adaptive behavior. PMT as a social cognition model was applied to predict different kinds of behavior such as cancer screening.[13] Although Pap test practice as a method of cervical cancer screening had a high property in Iran and the level of performing this test is unacceptable, few studies have been conducted to reflect the determinants of doing Pap test or intention for doing it among Iranian women.[6],[11],[12] Given the above, the present study was designed. The objective of this research was to identify PMT variables associated with Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice.


 » Materials and Methods Top


In this cross-sectional study, a total of 240 women enrolled in health care clinics were selected (8 women in each 30 clinic) by the stratified random sampling method between July 2012 and December 2013. Selection criteria of the participants were as follows: (1) Not having cervical cancer; (2) being married or sexually active; (3) previous negative history of the Pap test in their life; and (4) no history of full uterus hysterectomy. Furthermore, native language of the participants was Persian.

Early in the study, a measurement tool for assessing demographic and PMT variables was developed and validated by the researchers. Then, 240 women who met the criteria for participating in the study completed the instruments. The completion of the questionnaire approximately lasted 12-16 min. Finally, data collected were analyzed. Ethics Committee approved this study. All participants were informed about the objectives of the research and a written consent was obtained from them.

A 26-item scale to assess PMT variables in terms of performing first Pap test was developed by researchers. Then, its reliability and validity were estimated. For evaluating content validity (qualitative method), the scale was reviewed by a panel of 10 experts in the health education, obstetrics and gynecology. The expert panel was asked to assess the necessity and relevance of the items to calculate content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI). The CVI of 0.80 and above and CVR score 0.62 and above are considered satisfactory.[14],[15] In this study, CVI and CVR values of total scale were 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. For assessing face validity of the items, 30 women were asked to reflect their opinions on simplicity, clarity and readability of the items. The ambiguous questions were modified. The internal consistency of the PMT variables was estimated by Cronbach's Alpha. In addition, the stability of the items was calculated through Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). For this aim, 30 women completed the questionnaire twice with a 2-week interval. The ICC of 0.4 and above and Alpha of 0.70 above were considered as satisfactory.[16],[17]

The intention scale as the primary dependent variable consisted of three items (”I want/intend/plan to have the Pap test”) on a 5-point Likert-type scale, which anchored from 1 = completely disagree to 5 = completely agree. Cronbach's α and ICC for this subscale were 0.88 and 0.71, respectively.

Three items were used to measure perceived sensitivity regarding Pap test (e.g. ”I do not have any problems in my reproduction organ, so it is impossible to have cervical cancer”). Items were measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree). Cronbach's alpha and ICC for this subscale were 0.70 and 0.94, respectively.

Four items describe the perceived severity related to cervical cancer (e.g. ”If I have cervical cancer, I will die in five years”). Items were measured on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (=”completely disagree”) to 5 (=”completely agree”). Cronbach's alpha and ICC for this subscale were 0.79 and 0.94, respectively.

Three items were used to assess fear to get Pap test (e.g. ”I fear that  Pap smear More Details confirms a problem in my reproduction organ”). These items were measured on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (=”completely agree”) to 5 (=”completely disagree”). Cronbach's alpha and ICC for this subscale were 0.80 and 0.96, respectively.

The response costs scale consists of 2 items (e.g. ”The Pap test is not pleasant for me”). These items were measured on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (=”completely agree”) to 5 (=”completely disagree”). Cronbach's alpha and ICC for this subscale were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively.

The response efficacy scale consists of 4 items (e.g. ”The Pap test helps with early diagnosis of the disease”). Items in this scale were measured on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (=”completely disagree”) to 5 (=”completely agree”). Cronbach's alpha and ICC for this subscale were 0.85 and 0.79, respectively.

Seven items were used to evaluate self-efficacy (e.g. ”I have the Pap test despite being shameful”). Items in this scale were measured on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (=”completely unconfident”) to 5 (=”completely confident”). Cronbach's alpha and ICC for this subscale were 0.93 and 0.72, respectively.

Descriptive statistics including means and standard deviations were obtained through SPSS (version 18.0, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) Model fit was evaluated using the Chi-square index, goodness-of-fit index (GFI), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI), comparative fit index (CFI), normed fit index (NFI), standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and parsimonious normed fit index (PNFI) indices. Although, χ2/df value of 3 and less indicates that the model has a good fit, values of 4 or 5 are also acceptable.[18] The NFI, PNFI, CFI and GFI values of 0.9 and above (value range from 0 to 1) indicate a good fit.[19] RMSEA value of 0.08 or less indicates adequate fit. In addition, values of 0.05 or less and 0 indicate close and exact fits.[20],[21] SRMR of 0.08 or less indicate a good fit.[22] The relationship between PMT variables and women's intention to have the first Pap testing was estimated through path analysis. Also, LISREL (8.8) was used to do the preliminary and principal analysis for model testing.


 » Results Top


The average age of the women was 38.12 (±8.14) years. [Table 1] shows the demographic characteristics of the participants. The proposed model represented a good fit to the data (χ2 = 2.37, df = 28, P = 0.001, GFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.076, AGFI = 0.90, CFI = 0.97, NFI = 0.94, SRMR = 0.083 and PNFI = 0.95). The results showed that 42% of the variance in women's intention to obtain first Pap smear test was explained by PMT. Standardized path coefficients presented in [Figure 1] and [Figure 2] show that all the paths were significant (P < 0.05). The first model representing the PMT variables in relation to women's intention to first Pap test practice is shown in [Figure 1]. Self-efficacy (b = 0.55, P < 0.001) and response efficacy (b = 0.19, P < 0.001) were all directly associated with intention. According to the proposed model, self-efficacy was also associated with the perceived vulnerability (b = 0.21, P < 0.001). Fear was associated with perceived severity (b = 0.12, P < 0.05) and response costs (b = 0.28, P < 0.001).
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the participants (n=240)

Click here to view
Figure 1: Model for predicting women's intention for first papanicolaou test practice using the protection motivation theory; *P ≤ 0. 05 significant

Click here to view
Figure 2: Model for predicting women's intention for first papanicolaou test practice using the protection motivation theory and demographic variables; *P ≤ 0.05 significant

Click here to view


The second model which represented the PMT and demographic variables with regard to women's, intention to get the first Pap test is shown in [Figure 2]. The results indicated that the number of children was associated with perceived severity (b = 1, P < 0.01) and response efficacy (b = 0.20, P < 0.003). The number of pregnancies (b = −0.80, P < 0.05) was also associated with the perceived severity. Educational level was also associated with the response costs (b = −0.14, P < 0.03) and response efficacy (b = −0.25, P < 0.001). None of the demographic variables correlated with the women's intention to first Pap test practice [Figure 2].


 » Discussion Top


Our findings showed that self-efficacy and response efficacy were significant predictors of Iranian women's intention for getting the first Pap test. These variables explained 42% of the variance in behavioral intention. Given that self-efficacy and response efficacy are the coping appraisal variables in the PMT, it is interesting to note that the coping appraisal factors provide strong predictions of women intention than do threat appraisal variables (including perceived severity and vulnerability). This finding is consistent with meta-analyses of PMT that have shown coping appraisal variables to have the strongest relation with behavioral intention than do variables of threat appraisal.[23],[24] Self-efficacy as one of the predictors refers to the degree of perceived confidence a woman has about her ability to get Pap test. The low self-efficacy essay emphasized the difficulty of getting a Pap test. Su,[25] showed that self-efficacy had a significant association with poor practice of Pap smear screening among teachers in Malaysia. Boer and Seydel,[26] in their study also reported that self-efficacy was a predictor of breast cancer screening intention. In the current study, those women who had more perceived vulnerability and believed that they were susceptible to cervical cancer, was more likely to have self-efficacy for doing cervical cancer preventive approaches. A study done by Akbari et al.[12] stated that most of the Iranian women believed that they were not vulnerable to cervical cancer since there was no history of cervical cancer in their family. They demonstrated that Iranian women had limited awareness about causes of cervical cancer. In the same line, Lee et al.[27] have reported that Korean-American women had either no awareness or misunderstood the causes of cervical cancer screening. As a result, interventions regarding Pap smear should attempt to change self-efficacy of women, even though such perceptions are difficult to modify. In this regard, Bandura proposed four major sources of perceived self-efficacy that could be targeted in interventions. These sources include personal mastery experience, vicarious experiences; psychological condition of individual and persuasive communication.[13] Considering these resources may enhance self-efficacy of women for getting the Pap test. Moreover, providing information about cervical cancer causes and vulnerability of women to this cancer is essential.

In the present study, response efficacy was the second predictor of behavioral intention. The more response efficacy essay emphasized the effectiveness of Pap test practice in reducing their risk of developing cervical cancer. Akbari et al.[12] showed that Iranian women had no information about cervical cancer prevention approaches and their effectiveness. Overall, with regard to intervention for manipulating response efficacy, it is necessary to inform women about the effectiveness and benefits of Pap smear in preventing and early detecting of the cervical cancer.

Findings of the present study showed that fear was not associated with behavioral intention. In this study, fear was associated with two variables of perceived severity and response costs. Fear increases the processing of threat and attention to information associated with the threat. Coping appraisal processes are only activated when threat appraisal results in fear.[13] Abraham et al.[28] showed that there was no significant relationship between fear and condom use intentions.

Our findings also showed that none of the demographic variables were significantly associated with intention [Figure 2]. Education level of women had a negative association with response costs. The more the education, the lower the response costs associated with Pap test practice turned to be. Response costs focus on various negative aspects of doing the recommended behavior.[13] Literature shows that there are multiple barriers and costs for doing Pap smear. For example, Akbari et al.[12] showed that most Iranian women believed that getting Pap test takes much time. Demirtas et al.[29] also reported that women having more education level had fewer perceived barriers of cervical cancer screening than the other women.

Although the present study underscored the utility of PMT for determining predictors of first Pap test practice among Iranian women, it suffered some limitation. The limitation of the present study was that data were collected from women who referred to primary health care clinics. Since these clinics were located in low-income areas of Tehran, this homogeneity of samples may limit the extent to which findings can be generalized to other groups of women (e.g., those in high and middle-income areas). Similar studies within other racial/ethnic groups and geographic areas in Iran are recommended.


 » Conclusion Top


Women with more self-efficacy and response efficacy were more likely to practice first Pap test. Practitioners and health educators should take into account these two variables in developing interventions regarding first Pap test practice for women.


 » Acknowledgment Top


The authors would like to thank Iran University of Medical Sciences.

 
 » References Top

1.
Parkin DM, Bray F. Chapter 2: The burden of HPV-related cancers. Vaccine 2006;24:S3/11-25.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wright TC, Bosch FX, Franco EL, Cuzick J, Schiller JT, Garnett GP, et al. Chapter 30: HPV vaccines and screening in the prevention of cervical cancer; conclusions from a 2006 workshop of international experts. Vaccine 2006;24:S3/251-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Jelfs, PL. Cervical Cancer in Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Cancer Series No 3, AIHW, Canberra, 1995.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Australian Health Ministers. Advisory Council Cervical Cancer Screening Evaluation Committee. Cervical Cancer Screening in Australia. Options for Change. Australian Institute of Health: Prevention Program Evaluation Series No. 2. Canberra: AGPS, 1991.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Rezaie-Chamani S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Kamalifard M. Knowledge, attitudes and practice about pap smear among women reffering to a public hospital. J Fam Reprod Health 2012;6:177-82.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Abdullahi A, Copping J, Kessel A, Luck M, Bonell C. Cervical screening: Perceptions and barriers to uptake among Somali women in Camden. Public Health 2009;123:680-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bingham A, Bishop A, Coffey P, Winkler J, Bradley J, Dzuba I, et al. Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings. Salud Publica Mex 2003;45:S408-16.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Chirenje ZM, Rusakaniko S, Kirumbi L, Ngwalle EW, Makuta-Tlebere P, Kaggwa S, et al. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries. Bull World Health Organ 2001;79:127-32.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Fernández-Esquer ME, Espinoza P, Ramirez AG, McAlister AL. Repeated pap smear screening among Mexican-American women. Health Educ Res 2003;18:477-87.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sankaranarayanan R, Budukh AM, Rajkumar R. Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 2001;79:954-62.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Tavafian SS. Predictors of cervical cancer screening: An application of health belief model, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/topics-on-cervical-cancer-with-anadvocacy-for-prevention/predictors-of-cervical-cancer-screening-an-application-of-health- belief-model, 2012. [Last accessed on 2014 Jan 14].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Akbari F, Shakibazadeh E, Pourreza A, Tavafian S. Barriers and facilitating factors for cervical cancer screening: A qualitative study from Iran. Iran J Cancer Prev 2010;3:178-84.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Conner M, Norman P. Predicting Health Behaviour. 2nd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Beck C, Polit D. Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. 46th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 2004. p. 416-45.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Pers Psychol 1975;28:563-75.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Baumgartner TA, Chung H. Confidence limits for intraclass reliability coefficients. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci 2001;5:179-88.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 1951;16:297-334.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Mueller RO. Basic Principles of Structural Equation Modeling: An Introduction to LISREL and EQS. New York: Springer; 1996. p. 289-92.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Munro BH. Statistical Methods for Health Care Research. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 2005. p. 84-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Kline RB. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2011. p. 235-46.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
MacCallum RC, Browne MW, Sugawara HM. Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychol Methods 1996;1:130-49.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Bollen KA. Overall fit in covariance structure models: Two types of sample size effects. Psychol Bull 1999;107:238-46.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Floyd DL, Prentice Dunn S, Rogers RW. A meta analysis of research on protection motivation theory. J Appl Soc Psychol 2000;30:407-29.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Milne S, Sheeran P, Orbell S. Prediction and intervention in health related behavior: A meta analytic review of protection motivation theory. J Appl Soc Psychol 2000;30:106-43.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Abdullah F, Aziz NA, Su TT. Factors related to poor practice of Pap smear screening among secondary school teachers in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:1347-52.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Boer H, Seydel ER. Protection motivation theory. In: Conner M, Norman P, editors. Text Book of Predicting Health Behaviour. Buckingham: Open University Press; 1995. p. 95-120.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Lee EE, Tripp-Reimer T, Miller AM, Sadler GR, Lee SY. Korean American women's beliefs about breast and cervical cancer and associated symbolic meanings. Oncol Nurs Forum 2007;34:713-20.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Abraham CS, Sheeran P, Abrams D, Spears R. Exploring teenagers adaptive and maladaptive thinking in relation to the threat of HIV infection. Psychol Health 1994;9:253-72.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Demirtas B, Acikgoz I. Promoting attendance at cervical cancer screening: Understanding the relationship with Turkish womens' health beliefs. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14:333-40.  Back to cited text no. 29
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
 

    

  Site Map | What's new | Copyright and Disclaimer
  Online since 1st April '07
  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Cancer | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow