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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 330-334

Biological tailoring of adjuvant radiotherapy in head and neck and oral malignancies – The potential role of p53 and eIF4E as predictive parameters


1 Department of Radiotherapy, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pathology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Head and Neck Oncology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Oral Oncology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Bindhu Joseph
Department of Radiotherapy, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_56_18

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BACKGROUND: Recent advances in radiation technology has allowed to significantly reduce toxicity and improve the efficacy of radical radiotherapy in head and neck and oral squamous cell cancers. Insights into molecular biology of carcinogenesis has opened a window for identifying aggressive clinical situations that may benefit with larger clinical target volume (CTV ) margin, broader levels of nodal coverage, or alternative radiation sensitizers. AIM: To evaluate the potential role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (elF4E) and p53 as predictive biomarkers in resected margins of head and neck and oral cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients with oral cancers and 26 patients with head and neck cancers were evaluated for p53 and eIF4E in their negative surgical margins, for pattern of distribution and outcome. RESULTS: In oral cancers, 27 patients (67.5%) were positive for p53 and 10 (25%) for eIF4E in surgically negative margins. For head and neck cancer, the values were 13 (50%) for p53 and 9 (34.6%) for eIF4E. Twelve patients with oral cancers and 8 patients with head and neck cancers had local failure or death. The association with these biomarkers did not achieve statistical significance. However, adjuvant radiotherapy had a significant protective value. It improved median survival from 15 to 21 months in patients positive for p53 (P = 0.018) and from 12 to 20 months (P = 0.03) in those with eIF4E. There was no predictive association of subsite, tumor size, or nodal status. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of p53 and eIF4E in pathologically negative margins may represent a subset of patients who would benefit from early initiation of adjuvant radiation and tailored intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).






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