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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2020
Volume 57 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-117

Online since Wednesday, February 26, 2020

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LETTER FROM THE EDITORS  

Letter from the editors p. 1

DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.279177  PMID:32129292
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EDITORIALS Top

Should every cholecystectomy specimen be sent for histopathology to identify incidental gall bladder cancer? p. 2
Ganesh Nagarajan, Kaushal Kundalia
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_1027_19  PMID:32129293
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Thinking about the individual in the midst of cancer p. 4
Mahati Chittem
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_122_19  PMID:31898589
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Grossing and reporting of testicular tumor specimens : An evidence-based approach p. 7
Asawari Ambekar, Vishal Rao, Sanjay A Pai, MR Bindhu, Divya Midha, Seema Kaushal, Sachin Patil, Rakhi Jagdale, Shailesh Soni, Bijal Kulkarni, Sandhya Sundaram, Ramani Manoj Kumar, Sangeeta Desai, Santosh Menon
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_1072_19  PMID:32129294
The majority of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors (GCTs), but there are numerous other types, making testicular tumors one of the most diverse areas of human pathology, despite their relative rarity. Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed only after radical surgery, as biopsies are not performed. Further management of the patient is dependent on the diagnosis at microscopy, which itself is based on the sections taken at the time of grossing the specimen. Many pathologists often aren't well versed with guidelines for handling of orchiectomy specimens and for microscopy. This article discusses, in detail, the approach to grossing of a testicular tumor specimen and elaborates of the reasons as to why we do what we do at the initial “cut-up”. It explains the logic behind the reporting guidelines for testicular tumors and offer a clinical primer to the pathologist as to why we do what we do while grossing testicular tumor specimens.
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LUNG CANCER Top

Efficacy and safety of apatinib monotherapy in elderly patients with advanced metastatic non-small cell lung cancer p. 13
Jian Li, Xiwen Tong, Hongtao Li
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_614_18  PMID:32129295
Objective: No effective and definitive chemotherapeutic regimen has been established in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who failed second-line treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate apatinib, a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, as monotherapy in elderly patients with advanced metastatic NSCLC. Methods: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of apatinib in elderly patients (≥65 years old) with advanced metastatic NSCLC who failed second-line treatment from 2015 to 2016 in Huanggang Central Hospital. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan–Meier method. Toxicities were evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0. Results: Twenty patients were included in the present study. Two patients achieved partial response, and 9 achieved stable disease, representing a response rate of 10% and a disease control rate of 55%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.8 and 6.0 months, respectively. The toxicities associated with apatinib were generally acceptable with a total grade 3/4 toxicity of 50%. Conclusion: Apatinib is an optional choice as salvage treatment in elderly patients with advanced metastatic NSCLC, with modest efficacy and acceptable toxicities.
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Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage lung cancer: Tata Memorial Hospital perspective and practice recommendations p. 18
Jai Prakash Agarwal, Avinash Pilar, Naveen Mummudi, Meetakshi Gupta, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Rima S Pathak, Anil R Tibdewal, Rajesh Kinhikar, Yogesh Ghadi, Sandeep Tandon, Nilendu Purandare, Kumar Prabhash, Vijay Patil
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_216_18  PMID:31929233
Background: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is now considered the standard treatment for medically inoperable early-stage non-small lung cell cancer (ES-NSCLC). Purpose: There is a paucity of data related to outcomes with SBRT in ES-NSCLC from the developing countries. We report the early outcomes of ES-NSCLC patients treated with SBRT at our institute. Materials and Methods: Between 2007 and 2015, 40 consecutive patients with histologically proven ES-NSCLC were treated with SBRT. Median age was 71 years (range: 46–88 years) and median Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was 3. The majority had stage I (70%) and 45% of the tumors were centrally located. The median tumor diameter was 3.8 cm (range: 2–7.6 cm). The mean gross tumor volume was 41 cc (range: 4–139 cc) and the mean planning target volume (PTV) was 141 cc (range: 27–251 cc). Varying dose and fraction (fr) sizes were used depending on tumor location, tumor size, and treatment period. The median biologically effective dose (BED) was 77 Gy10 (range: 77–105 Gy10) for the initial cohort (2007–2012) and 105 Gy10 (range: 77–132 Gy10) for the subsequent cohort (2013–2015). Results: After a median follow-up of 16 months (range: 3–99 months), the 2-year local control (LC), overall survival, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were 94%, 41%, and 62%, respectively. The univariate and multivariate analysis determined CCI >3 and PTV >80.6 cc as significant predictors of worse OS and CSS (P< 0.01). The clinical stage, tumor location, BED, and treatment period (2007–2012 vs. 2013–2015) did not significantly predict any of the outcomes. The most common acute toxicities were skin erythema (10%), grade 1 esophagitis (8%), and exacerbation of previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10%). Grade ≥2 late radiation pneumonitis was seen in 17.5%. One patient developed a rib fracture. No neurological or vascular complications were seen. Conclusions: SBRT results in excellent local control (LC) and acceptable survival in medically inoperable ES-NSCLC with minimal adverse effects. Charlson comorbidity index and target volume are important prognostic factors and may aid in patient selection.
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MCQS Top

MCQs on “Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer: Tata Memorial Hospital perspective and practice recommendations” p. 25
HS Darling, S Jayalakshmi, Pradeep Jaiswal
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_1019_19  PMID:32129296
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HEMATOLOGY Top

Characteristics and significance of changes of thrombomodulin and plasma protein C in patients with cancer before and after PICC Highly accessed article p. 27
Min Yan, Xiang-Tao Pan, Xu Cheng, Ye Lu
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_252_18  PMID:31736467
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the changes and clinical significance of thrombomodulin (TM) and plasma protein C (PC) in patients with cancer before and after peripherally inserted central catheter placement (PICC). Materials and Methods: The levels of plasma TM and PC in 35 patients with cancer before and after PICC were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the significance of the differences was analyzed. Results: TM was 3.57 ± 1.01 μg/L at 1 day after catheterization, which was significantly lower than the value of 4.41 ± 1.26 μg/L before catheterization; these values were 4.30 ± 1.81 and 4.73 ± 0.97 μg/L at 30 and 90 days after catheterization, respectively (F = 4.14,P < 0.05). PC was 3.32 ± 1.35 μg/L at 1 day after catheterization, which was significantly lower than the value of 5.32 ± 2.12 μg/L before catheterization; these values were 4.64 ± 2.44 and 5.83 ± 3.14 μg/L at 30 and 90 days after catheterization, respectively (F = 6.28,P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in platelet (PLT) counts, plasma D-D, and coagulation parameters among the four time points before and after catheterization. There was a positive correlation between TM and PC (r = 0.5420,P < 0.01) on day 1 after PICC line insertion. The levels of TM and PC were not related to PLT, plasma D-dimer, or various coagulation parameters. Conclusions: The levels of TM and PC in the patients 1 day after PICC were significantly decreased and showed a positive correlation, but were not related to PLT, plasma D-dimer, or coagulation function.
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GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY Top

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during pregnancy p. 31
Barbara Suchonska, Małgorzata Gajewska, Anna Madej, Mirosław Wielgoś
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_403_18  PMID:31736469
Objectives: The aim was to analyze the unaffected course of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in pregnant women and to compare the rates of lesion persistence, progression, and regression. Materials and Methods: Patients with abnormal cytology included in the study underwent colposcopy, followed by a biopsy of the cervix. At the end of the postpartum period, all patients underwent Pap smear, colposcopy, and endocervical curettage to obtain tissue samples. The findings were compared to the baseline to assess the rates of persistence, regression, and progression of CIN. Results: The study group were 53 pregnant women. CIN was confirmed in 35 (66%) of them: CIN1 (n = 8, 22.9%); CIN 2+ (n = 26, 74.3%); and stage IA1 cervical cancer (n = 1, 2.9%). At the end of the postpartum period in 50% cases, there was no change compared to the baseline. Progression was seen in 2.9% and regression in 47.1%. A tendency for persistence and spontaneous regression of the lesions was observed. Conclusions: Although in many cases CIN tends to regress spontaneously after delivery, such outcome is not to be expected in all patients. When invasive cervical cancer has been excluded, definitive treatment for cervical dysplasia may be deferred to the postpartum period without any harm to the mother.
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CNS ONCOLOGY Top

Percentage signal intensity recovery: A step ahead of rCBV in DSC MR perfusion imaging for the differentiation of common neoplasms of brain p. 36
KL Surendra, Sriram Patwari, Shishir Agrawal, Harsha Chadaga, Anita Nagadi
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_421_18  PMID:31898591
Context: Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and percentage signal recovery (PSR) obtained from T2* dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging are important parameters for brain tumor assessment. Aim: To study the accuracy of PSR in the differentiation of low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, lymphoma, and metastases particularly in comparison to rCBV. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Study included pathologically confirmed cases of 10 low-grade glioma, 22 high-grade glioma, 6 lymphoma, and 12 metastases (Total 50). PSR, relative PSR (rPSR), and rCBV were calculated. Statistical Analysis Used: Accuracy of these parameters studied statistically using analysis of variance and ROC (Receiver operating characteristic) curves. Results: rCBV was higher in metastases (3.45 ± 2.82) and high-grade glioma (3.47 ± 1.62), whereas was low in lymphoma (1.03 ± 0.74) and low-grade glioma (1.43 ± 0.47) with P value of 0.030. PSR was low in metastases (48 ± 16.18), intermediate in glioma (73.24 ± 6.39 and 88.26 ± 6.05, high and low grade), and high in lymphoma (112.16 ± 10.57) with P value < 0.000. rPSR was higher for lymphoma (1.73 ± 0.57) than high-grade glioma (0.85 ± 0.11) and metastasis (0.69 ± 0.19) with P value <.000. Area under ROC for PSR was greater than rCBV in differentiating metastases from lymphoma (1.00 vs 0.13), high-grade glioma from lymphoma (1.00 vs 0.38), high-grade glioma from metastases (0.89 vs 0.58), and high-grade glioma from low-grade glioma (0.96 vs 0.03) with excellent curve characteristics. F values for PSR and rPSR from ANOVA analysis were 71.47 and 36.77, was better than rCBV (3.84) in differentiating these groups. Conclusions: Percentage of signal recovery shows low recovery values in metastases, intermediate recovery values in glioma, and overshoot in lymphoma. PSR values show lower overlap than rCBV between lymphoma and metastases; and between high grade glioma and metastases. PSR difference is also higher than rCBV between low- and high-grade gliomas. Hence, PSR can potentially help as an additional perfusion parameter in the preoperative differentiation of these tumors.
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BREAST CANCER Top

Diagnostic value of a power Doppler ultrasound-based malignancy index for differentiating malignant and benign solid breast lesions p. 44
Ali Enshaei, Afshin Mohammadi, Seyed Babak Moosavi Toomatari, Zahra Yekta, Seyed Ehsan Moosavi Toomatari, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Saber Zafar Shamspour, Zahra Karimi Sarabi, Nariman Sepehrvand
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_424_18  PMID:31929234
Background: Power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) can provide useful information regarding the vascularity of breast lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of a new PDUS-driven malignancy index in differentiating between malignant and benign causes of solid breast lesions. Materials and Methods: Patients with solid breast lesions were enrolled consecutively and evaluated first by PDUS and subsequently by histopathologic assessment after undergoing surgical biopsy. A custom-made software was used to extract data from images for calculating malignancy index formula. Results: A total of 87 patients with solid breast lesions were enrolled. Histopathologic evaluation identified 49 patients as benign and 38 patients as malignant. Malignancy index was significantly higher in the malignant group as compared to benign tumors (6.31 vs 0.30,P < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95–1.00). According to the ROC curve analysis, the cut-off point of 1.23 for malignancy index had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.7% (95% CI 82.2–99.3) and 94.0% (95% CI 83.1–98.7), respectively. Conclusion: Comparing with the histopathologic evaluation as the gold standard for diagnosing breast lesions, PDUS-driven malignancy index was shown to have a high discriminative performance in identifying malignant lesions with high sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy. The noninvasive nature of PDUS is an important advantage that could prevent unnecessary biopsies.
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Impact of St. Gallen surrogate classification for intrinsic breast cancer sub-types on disease features, recurrence, and survival in South Indian patients p. 49
Beena Kunheri, Rhaina V Raj, DK Vijaykumar, K Pavithran
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_437_18  PMID:31929235
Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of disease, and recently, intrinsic sub-typing on the basis of gene expression profiling is found to be a predictor of breast cancer clinical course. The St. Gallen has released surrogate classification for breast cancer sub-types depending on immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers. Aim: The aim of our study was to analyze the distribution of sub-types using IHC surrogate markers in our patient population and to assess the clinico-pathological factors in different sub-types. Materials and Methods:A total of 635 non-metastatic patients who underwent radical intend treatment from January 2011 to December 2013 were included for this retrospective analysis. A statistical analysis was done by Windows SPSS version 20. The Chi-square test was used to examine the correlations of these sub-types with clinico-pathological parameters. The Kaplan-Meier method estimates were used for survival analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 42.77 months (5 months to 112 months). Luminal B was the predominant group. Disease free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 95% in luminal A, 78% in luminal B HER-2 negative, 80% in luminal B HER-2 positive, 72% in triple negative, and 79% in HER-2/neu non-luminal. Tumor size, Ki67, T stage, N stage, and grade were significantly associated with DFS in all biological type with a P value of less than 0.05. Conclusion: Surrogate classification was successfully applied in our patient cohort. Luminal B and triple negative sub-groups were more prevalent in our patients, and this finding is at variance with published international data. Biological sub-type also emerged as an important predictor of survival.
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Eribulin monotherapy in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients in real life p. 55
Murat Sari, Pınar Saip
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_458_18  PMID:31929236
Background and Aim: Our retrospective, single-center study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of eribulin in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in routine clinical practice. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-eight patients treated with eribulin for MBC between May 2014 and November 2017 were included in our study. Clinical and biological assessment of toxicity was controlled at each visit. Tumor response was evaluated every three cycles of treatment. Results:Median age at eribulin treatment was 52.5-year. Tumors were hormone receptor positive (71.4%), HER2-positive (10.7%), and triple negative (TN) (25%). Most of the patients (92.8%) presented with visceral metastases, mainly in the lymph nodes (57.1%) and liver (53.6%). Median previous metastatic chemotherapy line was 4 [1–7]. Median number of metastatic sites were 3 (1–4). Median number of eribulin cycles was 4. At the end of follow-up period, 36% of the patients were still alive. Eighteen patients died due to disease progression. The objective response rate was 21.5% with a 42.9% clinical benefit rate. Median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 4 (95% CI: 2.7–5.2) and 14 (95% CI: 11.8–16.1) months, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated. None of the patients discontinued eribulin treatment due to toxicity. The most commonly reported toxicities were asthenia (71.4%), peripheral neuropathy (67.9%), and neutropenia (46.4%). Conclusion: Eribulin is an effective new treatment option in heavily pretreated MBC, with a manageable toxicity profile. Our results confirm that treatment with eribulin is feasible and safe in real-world patients.
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HEAD AND NECK Top

Infrahyoid flap revisited – A head and neck surgical perspective in the Indian setting p. 62
Manikandan Venkatasubramaniyan, Suhas Kodasoge Rajappa, Mudit Agarwal, Anshu Chopra, Abhishek Singh, Rajiv Paul
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_460_18  PMID:31929237
Purpose: In India, head and neck cancer contributes to about 35% of all malignancies. Among head and neck squamous cell cancers, buccal mucosa and tongue are the most common subsites. Reconstruction of defects after resection of primary in these subsites with acceptable cosmetic and functional outcomes remains a challenging task. In the era of free flaps, many pedicled flaps are being overlooked. Infrahyoid flap (IHF) is one among them. This study discusses the feasibility of IHF in reconstruction of small and medium-sized defects in subsites of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of 23 patients who underwent IHF and reconstruction after excision of primary in a case of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma from January 2010 till November 2017 with a median follow-up of 15 months. Patients who were diagnosed as a case of squamous cell carcinoma in oral cavity subsites (T1–T3 and N0/N1–N2) and in whom the anticipated defect size was small to medium were included. The evaluation was then done based on the possibility to reach recipient site, vitality after transposition, definitive integration, and clinical outcome. Results: Out of 23 patients, 5 patients had flap-related complications of which 1 patient had total skin paddle necrosis and 4 patients had partial skin paddle necrosis at distal end. However, no patient developed oro-cutaneous fistula or required corrective surgery. The maximum flap dimension was 9 × 4 cm and average flap dimension was 6 × 4 cm. The postoperative outcome of all patients remained uneventful. Conclusion: The infrahyoid myocutaneous flap is a reliable and convenient flap which can be used as a good alternative for free flaps in small and medium-sized defects of the oral cavity.
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GENITOURINARY ONCOLOGY Top

Erectile dysfunction in prostate cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy p. 70
Halil Cumhur Yildirim, Sefika Arzu Ergen, Emine Sedef, Merve Sahin, Songul Cavdar Karacam, Mustafa Sukru Senocak, Fazilet Oner Dincbas
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_465_18  PMID:32129297
Background: Sexual dysfunction is an important side-effect after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to compare sexual functions of PCa patients before and after intensity-modulated RT and to analyze their correlation with penile bulb (PB) doses and patient characteristics. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients who underwent RT ± hormone therapy for PCa between 2010 and 2013 were analyzed. Sexual functions assessed by patient-reported questionnaire and physician reported scale before and 3 years after treatment. The effect of patients' age, prostate volume, testosterone levels, comorbidity, smoking status, tumor stage, RT technique, hormone therapy, and PB doses to sexual functions were investigated. Results:After 3 years of RT, 64.3% of all patients had a lower erectile score; and 75% of patients who were previously potent (n = 24) had become impotent after treatment. However sexual desire still remained in 75.8% of patients who had desire before treatment (n = 33). Statistical analysis showed that two parameters were correlated with postradiotherapy impotency outcome; PB mean radiation dose (P = 0.033) and testosterone levels (P = 0.032). Conclusions: RT, despite modern techniques, affects the sexual function of PCa patients in varying degrees. Reducing radiation doses to penile structures may play a role in preventing erectile dysfunction.
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Efficacy and tolerability of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in recurrent and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck at a cancer center in Northern India p. 76
Abhishek Yadav, Pankaj Goyal, Chaturbhuj R Agrawal, Sneha J Bothra, Parveen Jain, Kumardeep Dutta Choudhury, Sunil Kumar Gupta, Manish Sharma, Rajat Bajaj, Amitabh Upadhyay, Prashanta Dash, Dinesh C Doval
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_469_18  PMID:32129298
Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) account for approximately 30-33% of all cancer and the median survival for recurrent and metastatic(R/M) SCCHN remains less than 1 year despite modern advances in therapy. Chemotherapy, usually single agent remains the backbone of therapy in these patients. EGFR antibodies are being used in (R/M) SCCHN. Nimotuzumab is one such agent that has anti-EGFR action similar to other agents without similar skin toxicity. Methods: Prospective, interventional, non-randomized study done at Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre. A total 124 patients were enrolled and divided into Arm A (Chemotherapy + Nimotuzumab) and Arm B (Chemotherapy) in a ratio of 1:1 i.e., 62 in each arm. They were evaluated and treated as per protocol after a written informed consent. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software. Quantitative variables were compared using Unpaired t-test/Mann-Whitney Test. Qualitative variables were compared using Chi-Square test /Fisher's exact test. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the PFS, with log rank test for comparison between the groups. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The most frequent primary location of tumor was oral cavity (n=38, 69%) and (n=33, 56.9%) in both arms. The overall response rate in Arm A was 38.2% and 19% in Arm B (p= 0.023). The disease control rate in Arm A was 74.5% and 43.1% Arm B (p= 0.0007). The median PFS in Arm A was 5.2 months whereas it was 3.2 months in Arm B (p= 0.009). Conclusion: In this study, the combination of Nimotuzumab plus platinum/taxane based chemotherapy was active and well tolerated in Indian patients in R/M SCCHN. Addition of Nimotuzumab to chemotherapy had a response rate of 38.2% and median PFS of 5.2 months are strong arguments for clinically testing this combination.
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GI TRACT Top

Chemo-radiation outcomes for esophageal cancer: A reflection from a tertiary cancer center on selection of patients for more aggressive therapy p. 84
Janaki Gururajachar Manur, M G John Sebastian, Savitha Mary David
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_474_18  PMID:31929238
Introduction: Most esophageal cancer patients present with poor nutritional status and may not tolerate radical treatment. Aim: We aim to identify patients who are good candidates for chemo-radiation (CTRT). Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients treated with CTRT were followed up for a mean period of 28 months and factors affecting the outcome were analyzed along with the recurrence pattern. Results:Forty-eight patients (88%) received CTRT and all completed treatment as scheduled. Eighteen (32%), 15 (27%) patients were alive with and without disease, respectively, at 28 months while 20 (37%) were dead. There was no statistically significant correlation between local failure and any of the factors like length, grade of the tumor, and chemotherapy received. Conclusion: Esophageal cancer patients present at an advanced stage and hence careful selection of patients for radical CTRT is very important for providing relatively longer disease-free interval. Equally important is the close monitoring of patients during treatment which helps in completing the planned treatment which translates into a better long-term outcome.
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Chronic calculus cholecystitis: Is histopathology essential post-cholecystectomy? p. 89
Amul K Butti, Shakti K Yadav, Alekh Verma, Abhijit Das, Roshina Naeem, Ratna Chopra, Sompal Singh, Namrata Sarin
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_487_18  PMID:32129299
Background: Carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) is the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. One percent of cholecystectomy specimens show incidental gall bladder cancers (GBCs). Aim: Our aim of the study to was evaluate the utility of routine histopathology of cholecystectomy specimens removed with a diagnosis of gall bladder diseases (GBD). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done reviewing the histopathological records of 906 patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Demographic details, gross findings, and microscopic findings noted. All the cases were categorized into two groups, A and B. Group A included the cases with any gross abnormality including wall thickness ≥4 mm and group B included rest of the cases. Results: Majority of the patients were in the age group of 31–40 years of age. Out of 906 patients studied, majority of them were females with F:M ratio of 6.14:1. Of the 47 cases which were included in group A (with macroscopic abnormality), six cases had gall bladder carcinoma on microscopy. One case from group B with macroscopically normal-appearing GB had invasive carcinoma on microscopy. In our study, we found a sensitivity of 85.71% and specificity of 95.44%, while positive predictive value (PPV) was 91.11% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 99.65% of macroscopic abnormality in the diagnosis of invasive carcinoma. Conclusion: All cholecystectomy specimens must be examined by histopathologists who must decide whether processing for microscopy is needed. Microscopic examination may be reserved for the specimen with a macroscopic lesion. This will result in a reduction of costs and pathology workload without compromising patient management.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Scrambler therapy: A ray of hope for refractory chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy p. 93
Deepti Ahuja, Sachidanand Jee Bharati, Nishkarsh Gupta, Vinod Kumar, Sushma Bhatnagar
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_361_18  PMID:32129300
Scrambler therapy (ST) is a novel noninvasive modality for treatment of chronic neuropathic and cancer pain using 5 artificial neurons. The principle with Scrambler Therapy is that synthetic “non-pain” information is transmitted by C fiber surface receptors. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy can markedly deteriorate patient's quality of life and can also negatively affect compliance with the anticancer treatment. Chronic neuropathic pain presents a therapeutic challenge if resistant to pharmacological management opioids and other types of treatments. We have described here successful use of scrambler therapy in three cases of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
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Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: Report of a rare case p. 98
Shakti Kumar Yadav, Roshina Naeem, Amitabh Sharma, Sompal Singh, Namrata Sarin, Sonam Kumar Pruthi
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_475_18  PMID:32129301
Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation (MEA-ND) is also called as neuroendocrine adenoma. Neuroendocrine tumors are rarely seen in the head and neck region and are even more rare in the middle ear. Clinical and radiological findings are non-specific and seldom suggest this diagnosis. Nomenclature and behavior of this tumor has been historically controversial. Both epithelial as well as neuroendocrine origin have been suggested. They comprise <2% of all ear tumors and commonly present with unilateral hearing loss, aural fullness, and tinnitus. We present a case report of MEA-ND in a 24-year-old woman who presented with heaviness and tinnitus in the right ear.
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Gestational pulmonary giant cell carcinoma - An autopsy report p. 102
Rushabh Shah, Pradeep Vaideeswar, Tasneem Cochin
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_534_18  PMID:31736471
Cancer is an uncommon event in pregnancy. The most common gestational cancers arise from the breast and cervix. Although lung cancer is the most common malignancy, its occurrence in pregnancy is a distinctly rare event. Diagnosing it during pregnancy is an additional challenge as the pregnancy, common respiratory ailments, and the lung cancer can have overlapping symptoms. We report an uncommon histological variant of lung cancer – giant cell carcinoma, which resulted in a fatal outcome in a 26-year-old pregnant woman. A high level of suspicion and vigilance should be exercised during pregnancy to diagnose such rarer entities.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: A case series of a rare hematological disease p. 105
Kalaivani S Subramanian, Sree Rekha Jinkala, Rakhee Kar, Debdatta Basu, Biswajit Dubashi
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_694_18  PMID:31898590
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Peer-review and post-publication discourse: The challenges p. 108
Raj Kumar Shrimali, Yakhub Mohammed Khan
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_527_18  PMID:31736468
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PERSPECTIVE Top

How to referee a paper - and save the world p. 110
Sanjay A Pai
DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_12_20  PMID:32129302
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NEWS Top

News from the world of oncology p. 115

DOI:10.4103/ijc.IJC_2_20  
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