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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 47  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 482--483

Isolated metachronous cutaneous metastases from renal cell carcinoma

A Kumar1, PN Dogra1, MC Sharma2,  
1 Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029, India
2 Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029, India

Correspondence Address:
P N Dogra
Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029

How to cite this article:
Kumar A, Dogra P N, Sharma M C. Isolated metachronous cutaneous metastases from renal cell carcinoma.Indian J Cancer 2010;47:482-483

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Kumar A, Dogra P N, Sharma M C. Isolated metachronous cutaneous metastases from renal cell carcinoma. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2010 [cited 2020 Jul 13 ];47:482-483
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Cutaneous metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are unusual and its incidence has been reported to be 1-3.3%. [1],[2] There is need for a high index of suspicion in evaluating a patient presenting with a skin tumor, which can be synchronous or metachronous. [2],[3] They typically indicate coexistent disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. The scalp and face are the commonest sites of cutaneous metastases in RCC. [1],[2] The proposed mechanisms of cutaneous metastatic dissemination include direct invasion from underlying neoplasm, implantation in an operative scar, lymphatic permeation, and hematogenous spread. [4],[5] The clinical appearance of skin metastases can be of 3 types: nodular (majority), inflammatory, and fibrotic. [2],[5] Cutaneous lesions may be flesh colored, but often range from erythematous red to violaceous hues. They are often multiple but may also present as solitary metastasis. The average interval from the appearance of skin lesions to death is reportedly 12.7 months. [2],[5] The treatment options for such lesions are generally limited and supportive. Whereas diffuse metastases should be treated with appropriate systemic therapy, focal cutaneous metastases may be surgically excised or treated with radiotherapy or a combination of the two. [2],[5]

We report an unusual case of isolated metachronous cutaneous metastases from a low-stage RCC. Very few such case reports have been described in world's literature on the subject. Interestingly, this is the first reported case from India in which isolated metachronous cutaneous metastases, albeit at 2 locations, have been noted. A 62-year-old male patient presented a year ago with recurrent episodes of gross hematuria and right flank pain of 6 months duration. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen showed a heterogenous right renal mass (12 Χ 10 cm) abutting the ascending colon and hepatic flexure [Figure 1]. There was no evidence of any lymphadenopathy and distant metastases. The patient underwent a right open radical nephrectomy. Histopathology revealed a clear cell variant of RCC, confined to the renal capsule, with tumor-free surgical margins (pT2 N0 M0). Three months postoperative follow-up physical examination, chest radiograph, and abdominal sonogram were normal. At 11 months of follow-up, the patient noticed asymptomatic, rapidly enlarging nodules on the chin and scalp, appearing simultaneously around a month prior to reporting to the hospital. Examination revealed a purplish colored fleshy nodule (2 Χ 2 cm) arising on the right parietal region of the scalp. There were similar 2 nodules on the chin (1Χ2 cm), which had a subcutaneous component [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. On palpation, they were nonpulsatile, freely movable over underlying bones. Serum biochemical parameters, including liver function tests were normal. CECT of the abdomen, chest radiograph, and bone scan were also normal. Excisional biopsies of the nodules were performed, which were consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic deposits from RCC [Figure 4] and [Figure 5]. The patient was subsequently treated with systemic immunotherapy. At 9 months of follow-up after metastatectomy, the RCC patient is well and has no evidence of other metastases.{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}{Figure 4}{Figure 5}

Thus, patients with low stage RCC at the time of nephrectomy may also develop cutaneous secondaries, sometimes after several months. In these patients the role of biological response modifiers needs to be evaluated.


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