Indian Journal of Cancer
Home  ICS  Feedback Subscribe Top cited articles Reader Login
Users Online :255
Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Navigate Here
     My Preferences 
     Manuscript submission

 


Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most popular articles (Since April 01, 2007)

 
 
  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
 
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
ABSTRACTS
Abstracts from 14 th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health (WCTOH), March 2009, Mumbai, India

July 2010, 47(5):109-210
  30,194 647 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Oral squamous cell carcinoma: Etiology, pathogenesis and prognostic value of genomic alterations
Ravi Mehrotra, S Yadav
April-June 2006, 43(2):60-66
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.25886  PMID:16790942
Tumours of the head and neck comprise an important group of neoplasia, the incidence of which is increasing in many parts of the world. This increase remains high, despite all the advances in modern medicine. This malignancy is more prevalent in the developing world and unfortunately, has not received satisfactory attention as the more prevalent cancers of the developed world, like lung, breast, or colon cancer. Recent advances in diagnosis and therapeutic techniques of these lesions have yielded novel molecular targets, uncovered signal pathway dominance and advanced early cancer detection. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of the etiology, molecular changes and the possible role that genomic and proteomic research might play in the diagnosis and effective cure of this modern-day scourge.
  21,494 2,698 45
Cytotoxic drug: Towards safer chemotherapy practices
MC Joshi
January-March 2007, 44(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.31165  PMID:17401222
Health care is nearly 10 years behind other industries in its efforts to reduce the errors. Medication error may be nobody's baby, but when it happens, it could well turn out to be everyone's worry and the reasons given for medication error range from silly to the downright serious. The anticancer drugs are known to be mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic, so extra precaution should be taken while storing, diluting, administering the drugs and disposing the waste. The objectives of this article are to define the standards for using cancer chemotherapy in hospitals; to tackle any spillage of drug and how to dispose of the waste of anticancer drugs. This could be beneficial to any hospital where chemotherapy is given without any defined standard operating procedure. The information furnished in this article is collected from the mentioned references and also from websites- The American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2002, www.cancer.org and www.cancersourceRN.com
  19,914 1,282 4
LETTER TO EDITOR
Affordable image analysis using NIH Image/ImageJ
V Girish, A Vijayalakshmi
January-March 2004, 41(1):47-47
PMID:15105580
  19,643 1,033 74
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Malignant priapism secondary to osteogenic sarcoma
RB Nerli, A Koura, V Prabha, SB Alur, S Devaraju, S Godhi, MB Hiremath
January-March 2011, 48(1):111-112
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.76628  PMID:21330752
  19,514 279 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Projection of cancer incidence in five cities and cancer mortality in India
P Marimuthu
January-March 2008, 45(1):4-7
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.40639  PMID:18453733
Background: Cancer is second largest non-communicable disease and it has a sizable contribution in the total number of deaths. It is important for the public health professionals to understand the dynamics of cancer incidence for future strategies. Therefore, this paper is attempted with the objective of projecting number of cancer incidence for five cities namely, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal and Mumbai and to estimate the cancer mortality rate for all India for the year 2008. Materials and Methods: The data were used from the Indian Council of Medical Research's publication of Population-Based Cancer Registry for the year 1999-2000. The population was calculated from the Census reports of 1991 and 2001. Causes-specific mortality report by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence was used for estimating cancer mortality for all India. The age-specific rate method is utilized to project number of cancer incidence for the cities of Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal and Mumbai and to estimate cancer mortality in 2000 for all India. Results and Conclusion: About 26.6% increase is expected in the registered number of cancer cases in these five cities and 52.68% increase is projected for Delhi which would mean highest number of cases in Delhi among these five cities within a span of eight years. And in Mumbai it is expected to have a marginal decline in the number of cases for the year 2008 (around -3.25%). The age adjusted analysis indicates that Mumbai is experiencing the higher incidence rate among the five cities studied herein. It is estimated about 50% cancer mortality is reported from the age group 55 and above years.
  16,548 1,581 19
REVIEW ARTICLES
Epidemiology of childhood cancer in India
RS Arora, TOB Eden, G Kapoor
October-December 2009, 46(4):264-273
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.55546  PMID:19749456
There has been enormous progress in the treatment of childhood cancer in the developed world and the epidemiology in these countries is well described. Hitherto, there has been no attempt to systematically study the burden of childhood cancer in India or to understand how the occurrence and outcome of the disease varies across the country. We have reviewed the epidemiology (incidence, survival, and mortality) of childhood cancer across different population-based cancer registries in India and also compared it with data from the resource-rich countries. Incidence and mortality data were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Program Reports and the Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents publications. Further, a comprehensive review of medical literature was done for information on individual cancers as well as survival data. 1.6 to 4.8% of all cancer in India is seen in children below 15 years of age and the overall incidence of 38 to 124 per million children, per year, is lower than that in the developed world. The considerable inter-regional variation in incidence and mortality rates across India suggests a possible deficiency in ascertainment of cases and death notification, particularly in rural areas. The marked male preponderance of Hodgkin's disease, lower incidence of central nervous system tumors, and higher incidence of retinoblastoma merit further analysis.
  15,573 1,725 34
REVIEW ARTICLE
Various methods available for detection of apoptotic cells- A review
M Archana, Bastian , TL Yogesh, KL Kumaraswamy
July-September 2013, 50(3):274-283
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.118720  PMID:24061471
Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death occurring in multicellular organisms in whom development, maintenance and sculpturing organs and tissues. Taken together, apoptotic processes are of widespread biological significance; being involved in e.g. development, differentiation, proliferation/homoeostasis, regulation and function of the immune system and in the removal of defected harmful cells. Dys regulation of apoptosis can play a primary or secondary role leading to cancer whereas excessive apoptosis contributes to neuro degeneration, autoimmunity, AIDS, and ischemia. Gaining insight into the techniques for detecting apoptotic cells will allow the development of more effective, higher specific and therefore better-tolerable therapeutic approaches. The goal of this review article is to provide a general overview of current knowledge, on the various technical approaches for detecting apoptotic cells.
  14,737 2,029 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Changing trends in incidence of breast cancer: Indian scenario
NS Murthy, K Chaudhry, D Nadayil, UK Agarwal, S Saxena
January-March 2009, 46(1):73-74
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.48603  PMID:19282574
  14,611 1,427 31
REVIEW ARTICLE
Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors
Amitabha Ray
January-March 2005, 42(1):15-24
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15095  PMID:15805687
Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.
  15,853 4 44
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment
S VS Deo, S Ray, GK Rath, NK Shukla, M Kar, S Asthana, V Raina
January-March 2004, 41(1):8-12
PMID:15105573
BACKGROUND : Early detection and multimodality therapy has resulted in an overall improvement of survival among breast cancer patients. Despite a significant shift in the treatment approach from radical mastectomy to breast conservation a significant number of patients develop lymphedema. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Retrospective analysis for prevalence of lymphedema in a tertiary care regional cancer centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Three hundred treated breast cancer patients with a minimum follow up of one year were evaluated for the prevalence and risk factors for lymphedema. Lymphedema was assessed using a serial circumferential measurement method. More than 3 cm difference in circumference is considered as clinical significant lymphedema. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for evaluating the risk factors by using the Chi square test and Cox logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The prevalence of clinically significant lymphedema was 33.5 % and 17.2 % had severe lymphedema. The prevalence of lymphedema was 13.4 % in patients treated with surgery only where as the prevalence was 42.4% in patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Stage of the disease, body surface area > 1. 5 m2, presence of co-morbid conditions, post operative radiotherapy and anthracycline based chemotherapy were significant risk factors in univariate analysis where as axillary irradiation and presence of co-morbid conditions have emerged as independent risk factors in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION : Post treatment lymphedema continues to be a significant problem following breast cancer therapy. Presence of co-morbid conditions and axillary radiation significantly increases the risk of lymphedema. A combination of axillary dissection and axillary radiation should be avoided whenever feasible to avoid lymphedema.
  14,938 475 32
MINI SYMPOSIUM: LUNG
Epidemiology of lung cancer in India: Focus on the differences between non-smokers and smokers: A single-centre experience
V Noronha, R Dikshit, N Raut, A Joshi, CS Pramesh, K George, JP Agarwal, A Munshi, K Prabhash
January-March 2012, 49(1):74-81
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.98925  PMID:22842172
Context: Lung cancer has varied epidemiology depending on the geographic region. Globally, there have been important changes in incidence trends amongst men and women, histology, and incidence in non-smokers. Indian epidemiological data on lung cancer is scarce. Aims: We set out to study the epidemiological patterns and clinical profile of lung cancer in India. Materials and Methods: We interviewed patients discussed in the thoracic oncology multidisciplinary meetings between 2008 and 2009. Demographic data, smoking history, place of residence, histology, stage at presentation, and treatment details were collected. Data was entered and analyzed in SPSS. Results: There were 489 patients, with a median age of 56 years, of which 255 (52%) were non-smokers and 234 (48%) were smokers. One hundred and thirty-three patients had consumed smokeless tobacco. The male-to-female ratio was 3.5:1. Sixty-nine patients (14.1%) were incorrectly diagnosed and treated with anti-tuberculosis treatment, which delayed the diagnosis of lung cancer by four months. Eight percent of patients had small-cell carcinoma; of the 92% patients with non-small-cell carcinoma (NSCLC), the most common histology was adenocarcinoma (43.8%), followed by squamous cell (26.2%), large cell (2.1%) and other (8.3%). Eighteen percent of patients were diagnosed by cytology, therefore were diagnosed as NSCLC, without further histologic subtyping. Most patients (43%) were in Stage III at presentation. Lung followed by bone were the common sites of metastases. The majority of the patients (49%) received palliative chemotherapy. Among definitive therapy, concurrent chemo-radiation (13%) was offered more frequently than surgery (6%). Conclusion: Considerably higher numbers of Indian patients with lung cancer are non-smokers, compared to the West. The global trend of rise in adenocarcinoma is paralleled in India. Non-tobacco-related risk factors need further investigation.
  13,125 1,290 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: A Tata Memorial Hospital experience
Sajid S Qureshi, Devendra A Chaukar, Sanjay D Talole, Anil K Dcruz
January-March 2006, 43(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.25772  PMID:16763359
Background: The optimal treatment of maxillary sinus carcinoma remains to be defined and there is a paucity of Indian studies on the subject. Aims: To present experience of management of squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus treated with curative intent at a single institution. Settings and Design:Retrospective study of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus who presented between 1994 to 1999. materials and Methods:The records of 73 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were analyzed. Sixty-two patients were evaluable. Forty patients (65%) were treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy, five patients (8%) were treated with radiotherapy alone, five patients (8%) were treated with surgery alone; 12 patients (19%) received chemotherapy. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The majority of patients presented with locally advanced disease (52, 84%); nodal involvement was observed in five patients (8%). The most common site of recurrence was at the primary site, which was observed in 28 patients (45%) and regional failures occurred in 10 (16%). The 3 and 5-year overall survival was 38% and 35% and the disease free survival was 29% and 26% respectively. The 5-year overall survival after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was 42%. Conclusions:The majority of patients present with advanced disease resulting in poor outcomes to conventional treatment modalities. Locoregional tumor progression remains a significant pattern of failure. New approaches such as neoadjuvant or concomitant chemoradiotherapy with aggressive surgery need to be considered and evaluated in prospective studies.
  13,777 625 13
Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in head and neck cancer and oral precancerous conditions
Prabhudas S Patel, MH Shah, FP Jha, GN Raval, RM Rawal, MM Patel, JB Patel, DD Patel
January-March 2004, 41(1):25-31
PMID:15105576
BACKGROUND : The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer because lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. AIMS : The present study evaluated alterations in plasma lipid profile in untreated head and neck cancer patients as well as patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC) and its association with habit of tobacco consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This hospital-based case control study included 184 head and neck cancer patients, 153 patients with OPC and 52 controls. Plasma lipids including: (i) Total cholesterol, (ii) LDL cholesterol (LDLC), (iii) HDL cholesterol (HDLC) (iv) VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC) and (v) triglycerides were analysed by spectrophotometric kits. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Student's t-test was performed to compare mean values of the parameters. RESULTS : A significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and HDLC was observed in cancer patients (P=0.008 and P=0.000 respectively) as well as in patients with OPC (P=0.014 and P=0.000, respectively) as compared to the controls. The plasma VLDL and triglycerides levels were significantly lower in cancer patients as compared to the patients with OPC (P=0.04) and controls (P=0.059). The tobacco habituates showed lower plasma lipid levels than the non-habituates. Our data strengthen the evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and head and neck malignancies as well as OPC. CONCLUSION :The lower levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. The findings strongly warrant an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in head neck cancer patients.
  13,570 531 15
REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of chelates in treatment of cancer
Laxmi Tripathi, Praveen Kumar, AK Singhai
April-June 2007, 44(2):62-71
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.35813  PMID:17938483
Chelates are used in cancer as cytotoxic agent, as radioactive agent in imaging studies and in radioimmunotherapy. Various chelates based on ruthenium, copper, zinc, organocobalt, gold, platinum, palladium, cobalt, nickel and iron are reported as cytotoxic agent. Monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioactive metals such as yttrium-90, indium-111 and iodine-131 are used in radioimmunotherapy. This review is an attempt to compile the use of chelates as cytotoxic drugs and in radioimmunotherapy.
  12,408 1,198 22
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Reproductive factors and breast cancer: A case-control study in tertiary care hospital of North India
AS Bhadoria, U Kapil, N Sareen, P Singh
October-December 2013, 50(4):316-321
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.123606  PMID:24369207
Background: Clinical, animal, and epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that cancer is a hormonally mediated disease and several factors that influence hormonal status or are markers of change in hormonal status have been shown to be associated with the risk of breast cancer. Aims: To identify the association of various reproductive factors with breast cancer. Settings and Design: A hospital-based, matched, case-control study. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and three hundred and twenty normal healthy individuals constituted the study population. The subjects in the control group were matched individually with the cases for their age ± 2 years and socioeconomic status. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to collect information on identification data, socio-demographic profile, and reproductive factors. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were used. The conditional univariate logistic regression analysis (unadjusted odds ratio and confidence intervals) was used to calculate the significance level of each variable followed by multivariate regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: The cases had a lower mean age at menarche, higher age at marriage, higher mean age at last child birth, lower mean duration of breastfeeding, higher number of abortions, late age at menopause, history of oral contraceptive pills, and a family history of breast cancer as compared to the controls. The results of the present study revealed a strong association of reproductive factors with breast cancer in the Indian population.
  12,732 779 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Chemotherapy in adult soft tissue sarcoma
A Jain, KV Sajeevan, KG Babu, KC Lakshmaiah
October-December 2009, 46(4):274-287
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.55547  PMID:19749457
Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare and histologically diverse neoplasms. Recent results of various meta-analyses and development of newer drugs have changed the medical management of soft tissue sarcoma. This review gives an outline of chemotherapy and the newer targeted therapies for the same. We have carried out an extensive search in PubMed, Medline for almost all relevant articles concerning chemotherapy of soft tissue sarcoma. The available data from the literature is mainly composed of the most recent reviews, meta-analyses, phase II, and randomized phase III trials published in various peer reviewed journals and various international conferences. The role of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy has been found to be controversial. The recent meta-analysis for adjuvant therapy in STSs has shown an increase in the overall survival with combination of ifosfamide and adriamycin. In locally advanced and metastatic STSs, single agent adriamycin remains the basic standard of medication. The combination of ifosfamide and adriamycin may also be used for rapid symptom relief and in patients planned for curative resection for metastases. Newer combinations of docetaxel and gemcitabine appear promising in selected subgroups, especially in leiomyosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Some recent developments include the European Union's approval of trabectedin for advanced STSs patients who had progressed on adriamycin and ifosfamide therapy. The future of mTOR inhibitors, insulin like growth factor receptor inhibitors and anti-angiogenic drugs appear quite promising. Newer methodologies such as, Bayesian adaptive randomization and inclusion of newer end points like progression-free rate, time of progression rate, and tumor growth rate will improve the results of sarcoma trials. At the end of each section we have also presented recommendations from *European Society of Medical Oncology and **National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines v.1.2009 for better correlation with the present literature.
  12,150 1,249 17
REVIEW ARTICLE
Aprepitant: A substance P antagonist for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting
C Girish, S Manikandan
January-March 2007, 44(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.31164  PMID:17401221
The episodes of nausea and vomiting which follow each cycle of chemotherapy are the most troublesome side effect experienced by cancer patients. Introduction of ondansetron was a definite therapeutic advance in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with more effectiveness with corticosteroids. However, the protection remained largely limited to acute phase of CINV with little or no effect over delayed phase. Aprepitant, a drug that antagonizes the effect of substance P on neurokinin type 1 receptor showed promising results in controlling both phases of CINV. This drug is well absorbed orally with a t max of about four hours. The addition of aprepitant to ondansetron and dexamethasone was found to be superior to ondansetron and dexamethasone alone in clinical trials with patients taking high and moderate emetogenic chemotherapy. This drug also showed a good safety profile, but its inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 may result in clinically significant drug interactions needing dose modifications of co-administered drugs. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for CINV recommends the use of aprepitant with high and moderately emetogenic anticancer drugs. Results of ongoing clinical trials with aprepitant and other agents of this new class of antiemetics are awaited and may alleviate the sufferings of cancer patients.
  11,500 1,272 10
REVIEW ARTICLES
Chemistry and toxicology of smokeless tobacco
RA Bhisey
October-December 2012, 49(4):364-372
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.107735  PMID:23442400
In most parts of the world, tobacco is used for smoking, whereas, in India, tobacco is used for smoking as well as in diverse smokeless forms. Absorption of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco and other ingredients added to various products are causally associated with several non-communicable diseases including cancer, especially oral cancer, which is the leading cancer among men and the third most common cancer among women in India. This article highlights the toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenic effects of hazardous chemicals present in smokeless tobacco products. This endeavor was based on the extensive review of literature from various sources. The SLT products have influence on cellular metabolism, ability to cause DNA damage, and cancer in experimental animals. It is, therefore, essential to consider the collective role of chemical constituents of SLT products in the causation of adverse effect on human health.
  11,280 852 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Pan masala advertisements are surrogate for tobacco products
C Sushma, C Sharang
April-June 2005, 42(2):94-98
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.16699  PMID:16141509
BACKGROUND: Pan masala is a comparatively recent habit in India and is marketed with and without tobacco. Advertisements of tobacco products have been banned in India since 1st May 2004. The advertisements of plain pan masala, which continue in Indian media, have been suspected to be surrogate for tobacco products bearing the same name. The study was carried out to assess whether these advertisements were for the intended product, or for tobacco products with same brand name. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The programme of a popular television Hindi news channel was watched for a 24-h period. Programmes on the same channel and its English counterpart were watched on different days to assess whether the advertisements were repeated. The total duration of telecast of a popular brand of plain pan masala (Pan Parag) was multiplied by the rate charged by the channel to provide the cost of advertisement of this product. The total sale value of the company was multiplied by the proportion of usage of plain pan masala out of gutka plus pan masala habit as observed from a different study, to provide the annual sale value of plain pan masala product under reference. RESULTS: The annual sale value of plain Pan Parag was estimated to be Rs. 67.1 million. The annual cost of the advertisement of the same product on two television channels was estimated at Rs. 244.6 million. CONCLUSION: The advertisements of plain pan masala seen on Indian television are a surrogate for the tobacco products bearing the same name.
  11,347 585 13
SYMPOSIUM: HEAD AND NECK
Early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus: A review of treatment options
V Krstevska
April-June 2012, 49(2):236-244
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.102920  PMID:23107977
The purpose of this review of the literature was to present treatment options for early stage pyriform sinus cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus, as the most frequent cancer arising from the hypopharynx, is rarely diagnosed in its early stage. Based on evidence from retrospective studies, conservation surgery and definitive radiotherapy are considered the available treatment modalities for patients presenting with stage T1 and T2 pyriform sinus carcinomas without clinical evidence of neck lymph node metastases, offering similar results with respect to disease control and functional organ preservation. Also, the high risk of occult metastatic nodal disease even in the earliest stage of pyriform sinus cancer entails elective neck dissection or elective neck irradiation to be considered mandatory. However, for patients with early stage pyriform sinus cancer, no level 1 study exists in which conservation surgery is compared with radiotherapy alone for the evaluation of local control or survival. Randomized multicenter controlled trials evaluating efficacy of conservation surgery and definitive radiotherapy, and correctly interpreting functional outcome for each of the treatment procedures examined are necessary to obtain sufficient evidence to influence the decision in the choice of the most effective treatment for early pyriform sinus cancer.
  11,381 437 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Visual inspection for cervical cancer screening; evaluation by doctor versus paramedical worker
Neerja Bhatla, A Mukhopadhyay, S Joshi, A Kumar, A Kriplani, RM Pandey, K Verma
January-March 2004, 41(1):32-36
PMID:15105577
BACKGROUND : In the absence of an effective cervical cancer screening programme, efforts are being made to explore the feasibility of using the existing infrastructure to develop effective low-cost screening methods. AIMS : To evaluate and compare test performance of visual inspection of the cervix by a doctor and a paramedical worker. SETTING AND DESIGN : Gynaecology outpatient department (OPD), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; cross-sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS : One hundred women with complaints of vaginal discharge, irregular bleeding, post coital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) by a doctor and nurse, followed by colposcopy and biopsy. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each test and compared. Concordance was determined by kappa statistics. RESULTS : VIA by nurse had a higher sensitivity (100% versus 87.5%), but lower specificity (53% versus 63%) when compared with the doctor, but it was not statistically significant. There was moderate agreement between their VIA findings (kappa=0.56). VILI findings were comparable to that of the VIA, both by the doctor and nurse. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa=0.89) between VILI by the doctor and nurse. CONCLUSION : Visual inspection can be performed reliably by trained paramedical workers and doctors and is an effective screening option in low resource settings.
  11,452 314 27
REVIEW ARTICLE
Capsaicin: A novel chemopreventive molecule and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action
AA Oyagbemi, AB Saba, OI Azeez
January-March 2010, 47(1):53-58
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58860  PMID:20071791
Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the a principal pungent ingredient of hot red and chili peppers that belong to the plant genus Capsicum (Solanaceae). Capsaicin is a cancer-suppressing agent. It blocks the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling pathway that are required for carcinogenesis. The anti-inflammatory potential of capsaicin is attributed to its inhibitory effect on inducible COX-2 mRNA expression. Cytochrome P4502E1 mediates the activation of xenobiotics such as vinyl carbamate and dimethyl nitrosamine to their toxic metabolites. This metabolic activation of xenobiotics by Cytochrome P4502E1 has been shown to be inhibited by capsaicin. Capsaicin also generates reactive oxygen species in cells with resultant induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which is beneficial for cancer chemoprevention. Therefore, the use of capsaicin as a chemopreventive agent is of immense benefit for cancer chemoprevention. The search strategy included printed journals, pubmed, and medline, using the terms 'capsaicin' and 'anticancer' citations, relevant to anticancer properties of capsaicin.
  10,483 1,182 38
Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of breast cancer.
Rakesh Kumar, MF Bozkurt, H Zhuang, A Alavi
April-June 2003, 40(2):60-6
PMID:14716120
Sentinel node localization is the second most important development in this century after conservative lumpectomy for the treatment of early breast cancer. The sentinel node mapping is a new multidisciplinary approach for staging of axilla in an accurate and less morbid way as compared to axillary node dissection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer has been adopted rapidly into clinical practice. The accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy is more than 95%, when performed meticulously (by an experienced multidisciplinary team) with proper patient selection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is most widely used for both palpable and non-palpable T1 and T2 tumors. Recent studies show application of sentinel lymph node technique in patients with locally advanced breast cancer and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, sentinel lymph node biopsy technique has application in developing countries and other countries where screening for breast cancer is not common and most patients present relatively in advanced stage of the disease. Several aspects of the sentinel lymph node biopsy including technique, case selection, pathologic analysis and accuracy with supportive important studies published in the literature will be discussed in this review.
  11,650 6 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Haematologic and immunophenotypic profile of acute myeloid leukemia : an experience of Tata Memorial Hospital
S Ghosh, SC Shinde, GS Kumaran, RS Sapre, SR Dhond, Y Badrinath, R Ansari, A Kumar, S Mahadik, AB Chougule, CN Nair
April-June 2003, 40(2):71-6
PMID:14716122
OBJECTIVES : To study the hematologic and immunophenotypic profile of 260 cases of acute myeloid leukemia at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is a retrospective analysis of 260 cases of AML diagnosed at our institution between 1998 and 2000. Diagnosis was based on peripheral blood and bone marrow examination for morphology cytochemistry and immunophenotypic studies. SPSS software package, version 10, was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS : Seventy-six percent of our cases were adults. The age of the patients ranged from one year to 78 years with a median age of 27.2 years. There were 187 males and 73 females. The commonest FAB subtype, in both children and adults, was AML-M2. The highest WBC counts were seen in AML-M1 and the lowest in AML-M3 (10-97 x 10(9)/L, mean 53.8 x 10(9)/L). The mean values and range for hemoglobin was 6.8 gm/l (1.8 gm/l to 9.2 gm/l), platelet count 63.3 x 10(9)/L (32-83 x 10(9)/L), peripheral blood blasts 41.4% (5 to 77%) and bone marrow blasts 57.6% (34-96%). Myeloperoxidase positivity was highest in the M1, M2 and M3 subtypes. CD13 and CD33 were the most useful markers in the diagnosis of AML. CD14 and CD36 were most often seen in monocytic (38%) and myelomonocytic (44%) leukemias. Lymphoid antigen expression was seen in 15% of cases. CD7 expression was the commonest (11%). CONCLUSION : AML accounted for 39.8% of all acute leukemias at this institution. The most common subtype was AML-M2. Myeloperoxidase stain was a useful tool in the diagnosis of myeloid leukemias. CD13 and CD33 were the most diagnostic myeloid markers.
  11,364 14 13
  Site Map | What's new | Copyright and Disclaimer
  Online since 1st April '07
  2007 - Indian Journal of Cancer | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow