Indian Journal of Cancer
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   2005| January-March  | Volume 42 | Issue 1  
 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Clinical features and prognostic factors of early breast cancer at a major cancer center in North India
Vinod Raina, Manisha Bhutani, Rajeev Bedi, Atul Sharma, Suryanarayana V.S Deo, Nootan K Shukla, Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti, Goura K Rath
January-March 2005, 42(1):40-45
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15099  PMID:15805691
BACKGROUND : Data on the clinical profile of early breast cancer (EBC) from India is scant. Due to differences in genetics, environment, lifestyle, socio-demographic structure and ethnicity, the presentation and behavior of breast cancer in India may be different. AIMS : To analyze the clinical presentation and outcome of EBC patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A single center retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Data from 487 EBC patients registered and treated at our institute from 1993 through 1999 were analyzed. Cox's multivariate regression test was used to determine prognostic factors for overall and disease-free survival (OS & DFS). RESULTS : The median age was 47 years and 49.7% patients were pre-menopausal. Ninety-six per cent patients presented with a lump. Stages I, IIa, and IIb comprised 7.8%, 38.8%, and 47.6% respectively. Only 11.3% patients opted for breast-conserving surgery (BCS) while the remaining 88.7% underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 275 (56.5%), and radiotherapy to 146 (29.9%). Estrogen receptor status was known in 173, of whom 93 (53.7%) were positive. Most patients were prescribed Tamoxifen for 5 years. At a median follow-up of 48 months, 126 (25.9%) patients had relapsed (systemic 107, loco-regional 19) and 94 (19.3%) had died. Five-year DFS and OS were 73% and 78%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, four positive nodes adversely influenced survival (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS : The median age at presentation was 47 years, significantly lower than most Western figures. The majority (86.4%) had a lump size > two cm. BCS was done in only 11% and the rest underwent MRM. Nodal involvement was the significant prognostic factor.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors
Amitabha Ray
January-March 2005, 42(1):15-24
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15095  PMID:15805687
Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: A single institution study
Rajesh C Mistry, Sajid S Qureshi, Shaikat Gupta, Sameer Gupta
January-March 2005, 42(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15098  PMID:15805690
BACKGROUND : Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare tumor of adolescent males and there is a paucity of Indian studies on this subject. AIMS : To present the experience of management of JNA at a single institution. SETTING AND DESIGN : This is a retrospective observational study of patients with JNA who presented at the Tata Memorial Hospital between May 1988 and August 2001. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Thirty-two patients with JNA were treated in the study period. Since the time period was prolonged and diagnostic and therapeutic protocols had undergone many changes, the patients were divided into two groups, namely 1988-1996 and 1997-2001. The age distribution, disease patterns, management approaches and treatment outcomes of patients in the two groups were recorded. Statistical analyses were done using students 't' test and test for proportion. RESULTS : The mean age at presentation was 16 years and more than 90% of the patients had Stage III or IV disease. Preoperative embolization was carried out in 19 patients. The surgical approaches used were median maxillectomy, infratemporal fossa, transpalatal, maxillary swing and craniofacial approach. The recurrence rate, complete resection rate and cure rates were 12.5%, 41% and 63% respectively. CONCLUSION : Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of JNA. Preoperative embolization and newer surgical approaches result in less blood loss and complete resection. Aggressive re-resection should be done for resectable recurrences reserving radiotherapy for unresectable, recurrent/ residual disease.
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A study of histopathological features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: Cases from a single institute in India
Saral S Desai, Suchana Sarkar, Anita M Borges
January-March 2005, 42(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15096  PMID:15805688
BACKGROUND : The microscopic features of medullary carcinoma have been described in world literature, together with its behavior and molecular biology. However, no large study has been reported from India. AIMS : This study aims to analyse the clinical, and especially the pathological features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and the surrounding thyroid. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this study a total of 234 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) were gathered over a period of 3 decades. The clinical presentation, the microscopic features and the clinical outcome were analyzed. RESULTS : MTC was found to be twice as common in men as in women and for some reason it occurred 10 years earlier in women. The histology revealed certain interesting features like the presence of apoptosis in over half of the tumors, in addition to the other common and not so common histological findings (encapsulated variant, small cell variants, follicular pattern, rosettes, oncocytic change, osteosarcoma-like pattern, and cribriform pattern). The adjacent thyroid in about 19% of the cases showed optically clear nuclei in the follicles that were close to the tumor cells. These features were similar to those seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS : The thyroid adjacent to MTC showed nuclear changes, which are also found in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The occasional concurrent occurrence of these two tumors and the involvement of the RET gene in both medullary and papillary carcinomas, makes this observation worth discussing and studying further.
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Feasibility of breast conservation surgery in locally advanced breast cancer downstaged by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: A study in mastectomy specimens using simulation lumpectomy
Jaiganesh LK Viswambharan, D Kadambari, Krishnan R Iyengar, K Srinivasan
January-March 2005, 42(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15097  PMID:15805689
BACKGROUND : The response of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) offers these patients previously treated by mastectomy, the chance for breast conservation. AIM : This study aims to assess the feasibility of lumpectomy in patients with LABC treated by NACT, with residual tumor 5 cm. SETTINGS, DESIGN : Single group prospective study from August 2001 to June 2003 in a teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Thirty patients with LABC whose tumors reduced with NACT to 5 cm were included. Simulation lumpectomy was performed on the mastectomy specimens to achieve 1 to 2 cm clearance from tumor and hence margin negativity. Multiple sections of the inked margin were studied. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Margin positivity was correlated with patient factors. Chi square test and Fisher's exact test used as appropriate. P value 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : After three cycles of NACT, 4 patients (13%) had complete clinical response including 2 with complete pathological response. Twenty-two (73%) showed partial response and 4, no response. Fourteen out of thirty (47%) had tumor involvement of margins. Tumors with post-chemotherapy size >4 cm were margin positive in 10/13 (77%). Tumors with post-chemotherapy size>3 cm were margin positive in 13/24 (54%). Tumors with post-chemotherapy size 3 cm were margin negative in 5/6 (83%). Pre-chemotherapy tumor size and post-chemotherapy tumor size were significantly associated with margin positivity (P=0.003). Tumors in the subareolar location had significantly higher incidence of residual tumor in the nipple areola complex. (P=0.04). Margin positivity of lumpectomy on downstaged tumors can be reduced by removing the nipple areola complex in subareolar tumors and by limiting breast conservation to tumors with post-chemotherapy size 3 cm.
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CASE REPORTS
18FDG PET in primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus
Sandip Basu, Narendra Nair
January-March 2005, 42(1):60-62
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15103  PMID:15805695
The role of FDG-PET in oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is hitherto unexplored. A MEDLINE search using the terms "small cell carcinoma" or "oat cell carcinoma" combined with "FDG-PET" yielded no report on this issue till date. We report, in this article, two cases depicting the usefulness of this modality in the management of this uncommon neoplasm. While reevaluation of unsuspected metastatic sites missed by other modalities suggest its role in M staging, whole body FDG PET (both baseline as well as post treatment) may find important role in treatment monitoring and evaluation in residual viable disease, taking into account the systemic nature of the disease.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy in patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa and lower alveolus with positive surgical margins
Dinesh K Badakh, Amit H Grover
January-March 2005, 42(1):51-56
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15101  PMID:15805693
PURPOSE : A retrospective analysis to determine the efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy, in patients of carcinoma of the buccal mucosa and lower alveolus with pathologically verified positive surgical margins (PSM). MATERIALS AND METHODS : Ninety-four patients were analysed, who underwent surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy. Twenty-nine patients (31%) had PSM. Other pathological factors like nodal stage, number of nodes, bone involvement etc. were also analysed. RESULTS : Disease free survival (DFS) of patients with a PSM was significantly worse when compared with those with negative surgical margins (NSM). Poor DFS was also observed for variables like nodal stage, number of nodes and extranodal extension and radiation dose. In multivariate analysis only two variables showed significant impact on DFS, those were surgical margins and number of nodes. CONCLUSION : To conclude in our study median dose of 60 Gy in PSM patients was not able to improve DFS and showed poor results as compared with NSM patients. There is also evidence from other studies, to suggest that post-operative radiation doses upto 60 Gy may not be sufficient to overcome this poor prognostic factor. To overcome this poor prognostic group patients, we in our institution are now employing radiation dose intensification and altered fractionation in an effort to imrove our results. In physically fit patients we are trying to administer concomitant chemotherapy along with radiation treatment.
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CASE REPORTS
Generalized neutrophilic dermatosis: A rare presentation of myelodysplastic syndrome
Kian Khodadad, Alireza Sadeghipour, Nima Aghili
January-March 2005, 42(1):57-59
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15102  PMID:15805694
We present a 30-year-old man admitted with generalized cutaneous lesions, fever and cough. Examination of skin biopsies of a papular lesion revealed dense neutrophilic infiltration of the upper dermis, so these lesions were diagnosed as neutrophilic dermatosis. Peripheral blood examination and bone marrow findings confirmed the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts. The cutaneous lesions improved after administration of corticosteroid and follow-up bone marrow examination revealed a normocellular marrow. One year later he referred with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M0). Unfortunately, he did not respond to treatment and died a few months later due to disease progression.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Tissue microarrays: Potential in the Indian subcontinent
Girish Venkataraman, Vijayalakshmi Ananthanaranayanan
January-March 2005, 42(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15094  PMID:15805686
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are a means of combining hundreds of specimens of tissue on to a single slide for analysis simultaneously. The evolution of this technology to validate the results of cDNA microarrays has impacted tremendously in accurately identifying prognostic indicators significant in determining survival demographics for patients. TMAs can be generated from archival paraffin blocks, combined with sophisticated image analysis software for reading TMA immunohistochemistry, and a staggering amount of useful information can be generated in terms of the biomarkers useful in predicting patient outcome. There is a wide range of uses for the TMA technology including profiling of specific proteins in cancerous tissues and non-cancerous tissues. Given the wide variety of tissue resources available in India, investment in a dedicated TMA facility will be of immense use in the research arena in India. This review article discusses the basics of TMA construction, design, the software available for the analysis of this technology and its relevance to Indian scientists. A potential workflow structure for setting up a TMA facility is also included.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Use of simple hematological, biochemical and clinical parameters to monitor response of multiple myeloma patients on high dose thalidomide therapy
G Uppal, Vinod Raina, A Sharma, M Anand, R Kumar, BK Khaitan, JK Grover
January-March 2005, 42(1):46-50
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.15100  PMID:15805692
BACKGROUND : Evidence of increased bone marrow vascularity in multiple myeloma (MM) has led to the use of anti-angiogenic drugs especially thalidomide in relapsed or refractory patients. Currently, parameters such as serum/ urine electrophoresis for M (monoclonal) proteins, bone marrow biopsy with touch preparation and b2 microglobulin are routinely used to assess response to therapy. These investigations are expensive, invasive and require high technical setup. AIM : To correlate simple and routine hematological and biochemical parameters with the key marker of disease i.e. M proteins. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : This is an open label, uncontrolled, single-arm study. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Twenty nine refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma patients of both sexes (M=20, F=9) with age ranging between 35-72 years were initiated on 200 mg/day of thalidomide with fortnightly increments of 200 mg to a maximum tolerated dose not exceeding 800 mg/day. All hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored at monthly intervals for one year. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Correlation analysis was performed between hemoglobin (Hb), total leukocyte count (TLC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (PC), total proteins (TP), serum albumin and serum globulin on one hand and M protein levels on the other using Pearsons Correlation test by SPSS version 7.5. RESULT : Hb, TLC, ANC, PC and serum albumin levels showed a significant negative correlation with M proteins. A highly significant positive correlation existed between M proteins on one hand and TP and globulin levels on the other. Dryness of skin indicated positive response to therapy. These correlations were found to be significant at the end of one month of therapy in all the above-mentioned parameters except in TLC where it was significant after 2 months of thalidomide therapy. CONCLUSION : Results suggest that sustained efficacy of thalidomide therapy may be amenable to monitoring by these simple, inexpensive and easily available investigations after ascertaining an initial response by M protein and marrow plasmacytosis as these parameters closely follow M protein levels. However more studies are required to further substantiate these findings.
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FOREWORD
From the desk of Hon. Secreatary and Managing Trustee
Arun Kurkure
January-March 2005, 42(1):7-7
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Indian Society of Oncology, Secretary's Message
Deepak Parikh
January-March 2005, 42(1):8-8
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