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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2010| January-March  | Volume 47 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 12, 2010

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Capsaicin: A novel chemopreventive molecule and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action
AA Oyagbemi, AB Saba, OI Azeez
January-March 2010, 47(1):53-58
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58860  PMID:20071791
Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the a principal pungent ingredient of hot red and chili peppers that belong to the plant genus Capsicum (Solanaceae). Capsaicin is a cancer-suppressing agent. It blocks the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling pathway that are required for carcinogenesis. The anti-inflammatory potential of capsaicin is attributed to its inhibitory effect on inducible COX-2 mRNA expression. Cytochrome P4502E1 mediates the activation of xenobiotics such as vinyl carbamate and dimethyl nitrosamine to their toxic metabolites. This metabolic activation of xenobiotics by Cytochrome P4502E1 has been shown to be inhibited by capsaicin. Capsaicin also generates reactive oxygen species in cells with resultant induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which is beneficial for cancer chemoprevention. Therefore, the use of capsaicin as a chemopreventive agent is of immense benefit for cancer chemoprevention. The search strategy included printed journals, pubmed, and medline, using the terms 'capsaicin' and 'anticancer' citations, relevant to anticancer properties of capsaicin.
  69 13,079 1,391
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
p 53 codon 72 polymorphism in stomach and colorectal adenocarcinomas in Iranian patients
Z Mojtahedi, MR Haghshenas, SV Hosseini, MJ Fattahi, A Ghaderi
January-March 2010, 47(1):31-34
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58856  PMID:20071787
Background: The association of a functional single nucleotide polymorphism at codon 72 of the p53 gene (Arg72Pro) with malignancy is a subject of controversy. We analyzed this polymorphism in 224 patients with gastrointestinal cancers (92 with stomach cancer and 132 with colorectal cancer) and in 163 healthy controls. Material and Methods: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and amplified with an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results: There was no significant association between p53 alleles and gastrointestinal cancers. The frequency of the Arg allele was 59.7, 58.8, and 59.2% in the stomach cancer patients, colorectal cancer patients, and controls, respectively. Frequencies of the Pro allele were 40.3% in patients with stomach cancer, 41.2% in patients with colorectal cancer, and 40.8% in controls. Likewise, genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between the two patient groups and controls. There were no differences in genotype or allele frequencies by gender, age, or histological grade. Conclusions: The data do not support the association of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism with stomach or colorectal cancers in Iranian patients.
  35 4,607 619
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children
MN Sadananda Adiga, S Chandy, N Ramachandra, L Appaji, BS Aruna Kumari, G Ramaswamy, HS Savithri, L Krishnamoorthy
January-March 2010, 47(1):40-45
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58858  PMID:20071789
Introduction: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA synthesis, DNA repair and DNA methylation. Genetic polymorphisms of this enzyme have been shown to impact several diseases, including cancer. Leukemias are malignancies arising from rapidly proliferating hematopoietic cells having great requirement of DNA synthesis. This case-control study was undertaken to analyze the association of the MTHFR gene polymorphisms 677 C"T and 1298 A"C and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients aged below 15 years with a confirmed diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 99 matched controls were taken for this study. Analysis of the polymorphisms was done using the polymerase chain reaction -restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: Frequency of MTHFR 677 CC and CT were 85.9% and 14.1% in the controls, and 84.9% and 15.1% in the cases. The 'T' allele frequency was 7% and 7.5% in cases and controls respectively. The frequency of MTHFR 1298 AA, AC, and CC were 28.3%, 55.6% and 16.1% for controls and 23.3%, 59.3% and 17.4% for cases respectively. The 'C' allele frequency for 1298 A→C was 43.9% and 47% respectively for controls and cases. The odds ratio (OR) for C677T was 1.08 (95% CI 0.48- 2.45, p = 0.851) and OR for A1298C was 1.29(95% CI 0.65-2.29, p = 0.46) and OR for 1298 CC was 1.31 (95% CI 0.53-3.26, p =0.56). The OR for the combined heterozygous status (677 CT and 1298 AC) was 1.94 (95% CI 0.58 -6.52, p = 0.286). Conclusion: The prevalence of 'T' allele for 677 MTHFR polymorphism was low in the population studied. There was no association between MTHFR 677 C→T and 1298 A→C gene polymorphisms and risk of ALL, which may be due to the small sample size.
  32 5,373 661
Profile of breast cancer patients at a tertiary care hospital in north India
DS Sandhu, S Sandhu, RK Karwasra, S Marwah
January-March 2010, 47(1):16-22
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58853  PMID:20071784
Background and Aims: We carried out this study in order to know the epidemiology and management strategies for breast cancer patients in our patient population. Settings and Design: The epidemiological data pertaining to demography and risk factors for carcinoma breast were analyzed retrospectively in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital of North India. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 304 patients admitted for over a period of five years (January 1998 to December 2002) were used for data analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired T-test . Results: Mean age of our female breast cancer patients was found to be lower compared to the western world, with an average difference of one decade. A majority of the patients were from a rural background and had a longer duration of symptoms compared to urban patients. Lump in the breast was a dominant symptom. Familial breast cancer was uncommon. Left sided breast cancer was slightly preponderant. Screening by mammography and staging procedures such as bone scan, Computed Tomography (CT) scan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were sparsely used. The most common histology was infiltrating duct carcinoma. Conclusion: Modified radical mastectomy was found to be a safe operative procedure. Breast conservative surgery, although considered the gold standard in early breast cancer, was found unsuitable for our patients, due to the social background and lack of intensive radiotherapy and chemotherapy backup. Infiltrating duct carcinoma was more commonly associated with positive lymph nodes compared to other histopathologies. Cases operated by surgical oncologists had better axillary clearance. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used mainly by surgical oncologists suggesting a more rational approach toward the management of breast carcinoma.
  30 8,591 1,061
Frequency of breast cancer among sudanese patients with breast palpable lumps
HG Ahmed, AS Ali, AO Almobarak
January-March 2010, 47(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58854  PMID:20071785
Background: Breast cancer mortality is high in Sudan and most patients are detected at later stages of the disease due to the lack of awareness and absence of screening programs. This study aimed to determine the pattern and frequency of breast cancer among patients presenting with palpable breast lumps within one year duration. Settings and Design: As a part of the continuous development in cancer management, this descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Khartoum, Sudan. Methods and Materials: We obtained information (patient's personal data) and Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) materials, for occurrence of 200 breast lesions in patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by using a computer SPSS program. Results: The diagnoses of the 200 breast lesions were as follows: 68 (34%) were malignant, 56 cases (28%) were fibroadenoma, 23 cases (11.5%) were fibrocystic change, 22 cases (11%) were inflammatory lesions (including mastitis and abscess formation), 12 cases (6%) were benign cysts and the remaining 19 patients (9.5%) were with lactation changes (8 cases), lipoma (6 cases), gynecomastia (3 cases) and phyllodes tumor (2 cases). Regarding gender, only 6 patients (0.03%) were males of whom 3 (50%) were diagnosed with gynecomastia. Conclusions: The frequency of advanced breast cancer among patients with breast lesions is high, in this subset of patients, which signals the urgency for implementation of breast screening programs.
  24 7,860 576
Risk of colorectal cancer in relatives: A case control study
A Safaee, B Moghimi-Dehkordi, MA Pourhoseingholi, M Vahedi, E Maserat, S Ghiasi, SR Fatemi, MR Zali
January-March 2010, 47(1):27-30
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58855  PMID:20071786
Background: In around 10 to 15% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, a positive family history of colorectal cancer is observed . Although increased risk of colorectal cancer in individuals with a family history of the disease has been observed consistently in the past studies, limited information is available on colorectal cancer associated with family history in Iran. Aims : The purpose of this study is to define the risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of cancer. Setting and Design: The present study was designed as an unmatched case control study. The cases were 393 patients with histologically confirmed colorectal carcinomas and there were 393 controls, randomly selected from among the healthy participants in a health survey. Methods : The family history was extracted from a standard history form completed by the patient or from the record created by a health care provider. Statistical Analysis: Mantel-Heanszel Odds Ratio was computed for removing the confounding effect of age and sex. Results : A positive family history of cancer was reported by 36.4 and 24.4% among the cases and controls, respectively. Colorectal cancer risk increased two-fold in subjects who reported having first degree relatives with cancer. The adjusted odds ratio was 4.76, indicating that having a positive family history of colorectal cancer among relatives increased one's risk of colorectal cancer about 4.5-fold. Conclusion: According to our findings, a family history of cancer increased the risk of CRC. Due to this fact that there is no current colorectal cancer screening program in Iran, it is recommended that first degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer should be considered as a priority group for screening programs.
  19 3,749 477
ErbB-2 expression and its association with other biological parameters of breast cancer among Indian women
K Vaidyanathan, P Kumar, CO Reddy, V Deshmane, K Somasundaram, G Mukherjee
January-March 2010, 47(1):8-15
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58852  PMID:20071783
Objectives: Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor family genes, which include ErbB-1, 2, 3 and 4, has been implicated in a number of cancers. We have studied the extent of ErbB-2 overexpression among Indian women with sporadic breast cancer. Methods: Immmunohistochemistry and genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to study the ErbB2 overexpression. ErbB2 status was correlated with other clinico-pathological parameters, including patient survival. Results: ErbB-2 overexpression was detected in 43.2% (159/368) of the cases by immunohistochemistry. For a sub-set of patients (n = 55) for whom total DNA was available, ErbB-2 gene amplification was detected in 25.5% (14/55) of the cases by genomic PCR. While the ErbB2 overexpression was significantly higher in patients with lymphnode (χ2 = 12.06, P≤ 0.001), larger tumor size (χ2 = 8.22, P = 0.042) and ductal carcinoma (χ2 = 15.42, P ≤ 0.001), it was lower in patients with disease-free survival (χ2 = 22.13, P ≤ 0.001). Survival analysis on a sub-set of patients for whom survival data were available (n = 179) revealed that ErbB-2 status (χ2 =25.94, P ≤ 0.001), lymphnode status (χ2 = 12.68, P ≤ 0.001), distant metastasis (χ2 = 19.49, P ≤ 0.001) and stage of the disease (χ2 = 28.04, P ≤0.001) were markers of poor prognosis. Conclusions: ErbB-2 overexpression was significantly greater compared with the Western literature, but comparable to other Indian studies. Significant correlation was found between ErbB-2 status and lymphnode status, tumor size and ductal carcinoma. ErbB-2 status, lymph node status, distant metastasis and stage of the disease were found to be prognostic indicators.
  16 4,606 555
BRIEF REPORTS
Sister Mary Joseph's nodule of the umbilicus: Is it always of gastric origin? A review of eight cases at different sites of origin
F Al-Mashat, AM Sibiany
January-March 2010, 47(1):65-69
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58862  PMID:20071793
Objective : The aim of this analysis was to evaluate our management and outcome of eight cases of Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule of the umbilicus (SMJN). Methods : Between 2002 and 2009, we collected eight cases of SMJN and their clinical data were studied in a retrospective manner. Results : The mean age of the patients was 50.6 years (range, 34-58). There were three males and five females. Five cases were discovered preoperatively during an abdominal examination and in the remaining three patients, the umbilical nodule was noticed during surgery. Most patients presented with abdominal pain. Various signs were discovered during clinical examination. Exhaustive investigations done included ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, mammogram, bone scan, and a panel of tumor markers. The primary tumors were gastric adenocarcinoma (two patients), ovarian adenocarcinoma (two patients), pancreatic carcinoma (one patient), colonic adenocarcinoma (one patient), gallbladder adenocarcinoma (one patient), and cholangiocarcinoma (one patient). As the disease was advanced and metastatic in all patients, only palliative therapy was offered. All patients died within a short period after clinical presentation, ranging from four to 58 weeks (mean, 20 weeks). Conclusion : SMJN is a rare manifestation of a variety of advanced malignancies, usually of gastrointestinal origin. A majority of the patients present at a late stage and many harbor distant metastases. The patient's survival is very short (mean, 20 weeks) leading to a poor outcome. We believe that if the primary cancer is discovered at an early stage, the prognosis may improve.
  13 6,990 511
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ephrin A4 expression in osteosarcoma, impact on prognosis, and patient outcome
AG Abdou, MM Abd El-Wahed, NY Asaad, RM Samaka, R Abdallaha
January-March 2010, 47(1):46-52
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58859  PMID:20071790
Background : Ephrin A4 is one of the ephrin ligand molecules belonging to the tyrosine kinases receptor family. It was originally identified in a T-lymphoma cell line and seen to be expressed in human adult tissue as well as several tumor types. In our previous study, we showed the unique pattern of ephrin A4 immunohistochemical staining, which differed according to the type of examined bone specimens (normal bone, primary, and metastatic osteosarcoma lesions). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prognostic impact of ephrin A4 expression in a group of primary osteosarcoma patients. Materials and Methods : Ephrin A4 immunohistochemical expression was carried out on 47 primary osteosarcoma cases. Results : Ephrin A4 was expressed in 82.9% of osteosarcoma cases with cytoplasmic localization in 58.9% of positive cases. The cytoplasmic pattern was significantly associated with aggressive histopathological types of osteosarcoma (P = 0.02), advanced stage (P = 0.04), the presence of metastasis (P = 0.03), inferior response to neoadjuvent chemotherapy (P = 0.04), and tended to be associated with a shorter event-free survival (P = 0.09). Conclusions : The cytoplasmic pattern of ephrin A4 could identify a subgroup of primary osteosarcoma patients with a high liability for progression, poor prognosis, and inferior response to chemotherapy.
  8 3,401 355
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Ethmo-spheno-intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease
MS Walid, AA Grigorian
January-March 2010, 47(1):80-81
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58870  PMID:20071801
  7 3,048 263
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Experience from a regional cancer center
A Sharma, J Bajpai, V Raina, BK Mohanti
January-March 2010, 47(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58857  PMID:20071788
Aims : To analyze clinical features and survival in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases registered at Dr BRA Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital of AIIMS, New Delhi. Materials and Methods : We have retrospectively reviewed records of NHL patients registered, from January 2003 to July 2007 to analyze HIV-associated NHL. Results : Seven cases of HIV-associated NHL cases were identified. Age range was 14-56 years. Five were males. Baseline performance status (ECOG-PS) was >I in 6. Mean LDH was 409 U/L. Mean hemoglobin was 10.5 g% and mean CD4 count was 243/mm3 (range 18- 454). Three cases had nodal lymphoma and four had extra nodal lymphoma. No primary CNS (PCNSL) lymphoma was seen. All patients were of advanced stages and of intermediate to high-risk group based on international prognostic index (IPI). Six cases had high-grade NHL. None had CNS involvement. Five had B symptoms. HIV infection was diagnosed as part of NHL work-up in five patients. All patients received HAART. All were planned for chemotherapy with CNS prophylaxis. Protocols used were CVP, CHOP, R-CHOP or MCP-842. One patient received IFRT. Response : One patient achieved complete response (CR) and continues to be disease free, with 4.5 years of follow-up. Three cases achieved partial response (PR) and 2 had progressive disease (PD). Currently, three patients are on follow-up. Conclusions : These NHL are of higher grade and advanced stage. Response and tolerance to chemotherapy is poor. Appropriate supportive care and CNS prophylaxis might improve outcome. We need to improve epidemiological data collection system in this part of world. With HAART, the goal of therapy is durable CR rather than palliation.
  7 3,987 489
BRIEF REPORTS
Orofacial rehabilitation of patients with post-cancer treatment-An overview and report of three cases
KS Guttal, VG Naikmasur, CB Rao, RK Nadiger, SS Guttal
January-March 2010, 47(1):59-64
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58861  PMID:20071792
According to World Health Organisation statistics, individuals of the Indian subcontinent have the highest prevalence of orofacial cancer. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or combination therapies are commonly administered treatment modalities for treatment of oral cancer. Surgical resection can be mutilating, disfiguring and may deeply affect self-image of patients. Orofacial defects have unique limitations and challenges. A coordinated effort from the surgeon, oral physician and the maxillofacial prosthodontist to treat such patients is the need of the hour. This article presents an overview of the orofacial rehabilitation of postcancer treatments along with case reports.
  5 5,491 595
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Metastatic breast carcinoma to solitary fibrous tumor in the lung
G Gonullu, Y Sullu, A Basoglu, M Elmali, M Karaoglanoglu, I Yucel
January-March 2010, 47(1):76-78
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58868  PMID:20071799
  4 2,325 295
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the chest-wall with delayed metastasis to the sphenoid
G Kelkar, AV Moiyadi, SV Kane
January-March 2010, 47(1):82-84
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58872  PMID:20071803
  3 2,181 247
Primary B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of tongue
T Singh, U Amirtham, CT Satheesh, KV Sajeevan, A Jain, KC Lakshmaiah, KG Babu, D Lokanatha
January-March 2010, 47(1):84-86
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58873  PMID:20071804
  3 2,963 290
Hemangiopericytoma of the parapharyngeal space: An uncommon tumor in an unusual site
K Dimri, VK Nimbran, A Kumar, B Rai
January-March 2010, 47(1):86-87
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58874  PMID:20071805
  3 2,100 246
Metastatic small cell carcinoma lung presenting as a breast mass: Cytologic findings
S Sharma, M Kotru
January-March 2010, 47(1):72-73
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58865  PMID:20071796
  3 2,364 224
Proptosis due to "isolated" soft tissue orbital metastasis of prostate carcinoma
R Nayyar, P Singh, S Panda, S Kashyap, NP Gupta
January-March 2010, 47(1):74-76
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58867  PMID:20071798
  3 2,948 239
GUEST EDITORIALS
Breast cancer in India: A continuing challenge
S Gupta
January-March 2010, 47(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58849  PMID:20071780
  2 6,496 980
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Important in cancer and other drug discovery systems
R Jain, S Kosta, A Tiwari
January-March 2010, 47(1):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58875  PMID:20071806
  2 3,307 314
Metaplastic carcinoma of breast-giant cell rich variant
DS Jadhav, AN Bagate, SY Swami, BR Sonwane
January-March 2010, 47(1):88-89
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58876  PMID:20071807
  2 3,161 305
GUEST EDITORIALS
HIV-associated non-hodgkin's lymphoma: How much do we know?
AA Dhir
January-March 2010, 47(1):6-7
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58851  PMID:20071782
  1 3,215 408
Family history and colorectal cancer: Is it worth the risk?
P Lohar
January-March 2010, 47(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58850  PMID:20071781
  1 2,922 395
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Protracted cisplatin-induced vomiting responding to mosapride
P Ganesan, A Sharma, BK Mohanti, A Gogia
January-March 2010, 47(1):73-74
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58866  PMID:20071797
  1 2,864 315
Phase 0 (Zero) clinical trials: A myth or reality?
A Jain
January-March 2010, 47(1):70-70
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58863  PMID:20071795
  - 2,560 306
T-cell / histiocyte-rich B cell lymphoma mimicking Hodgkin's lymphoma
U Majhi, S Shirley, KM Murhekar
January-March 2010, 47(1):70-72
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58864  PMID:20071794
  - 3,755 283
Infantile myofibroma of the pharynx presenting with severe upper airway obstruction in a child
S Panja, G Champaka, AM Shenoy
January-March 2010, 47(1):78-79
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58869  PMID:20071800
  - 1,969 205
Pseudo Chediak Higashi inclusions in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia
N Kakkar, S Das, JM Joseph
January-March 2010, 47(1):81-82
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.58871  PMID:20071802
  - 3,184 226
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