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   2011| April-June  | Volume 48 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 11, 2011

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
The role of innate immunity in spontaneous regression of cancer
JA Thomas, M Badini
April-June 2011, 48(2):246-251
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82887  PMID:21768675
Nature has provided us with infections - acute and chronic - and these infections have both harmful and beneficial effects on the human system. Worldwide, a number of chronic infections are associated with a risk of cancer, but it is also known that cancer regresses when associated with acute infections such as bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, etc. Acute infections are known to cure chronic diseases since the time of Hippocrates. The benefits of these fever producing acute infections has been applied in cancer vaccinology such as the Coley's toxins. Immune cells like the natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells have taken greater precedence in cancer immunity than ever before. This review provides an insight into the benefits of fever and its role in prevention of cancer, the significance of common infections in cancer regression, the dual nature of our immune system and the role of the often overlooked primary innate immunity in tumor immunology and spontaneous regression of cancer.
  21 8,992 805
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comprehensive examination of Smad4, Smad6 and Smad7 mRNA expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
P Singh, JD Wig, R Srinivasan, BD Radotra
April-June 2011, 48(2):170-174
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82876  PMID:21768661
Background: Smad4, Smad6 and Smad7 are important molecules in TGF-beta pathway, which plays an important role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) biology. Aims : This study examined the expression profiles of Smad4, Smad6 and Smad7 mRNA in patient samples of PDAC and their relationship to Smad protein expression, SMAD4 gene mutations, clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. Settings and Design: Surgically resected, paired normal and tumor tissues of 25 patients of PDAC were studied. Materials and Methods: Protein and mRNA levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. Statistical Methods: Statistical analysis was done using Student's t-test, Pearson's chi-square test, Spearman's Rank Correlation, Pearson's Correlation test and Kaplan-Meier Logrank test. Results: While there was a highly significant difference in the protein levels of all three Smads in tumor as compared to normal samples, mRNA levels were significantly different only for Smad4. Protein levels did not correlate significantly with mRNA levels for any of the three Smads. The mRNA levels of Smad4 and Smad6, Smad4 and Smad7, and Smad6 and Smad7 in tumor samples showed a significant positive correlation. The relationship of Smad4 mRNA expression to SMAD4 gene status and Smad4 protein expression was discordant and there was no significant correlation between mRNA expression and clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. Conclusion : The absence of concordance between SMAD4 gene status, mRNA expression and Smad4 protein expression suggests the presence of other regulatory mechanisms in Smad4 transcription and translation in PDAC.
  16 3,289 378
Metastatic tumors to the jaw bones: Retrospective analysis from an Indian tertiary referral center
SS Muttagi, P Chaturvedi, A D'Cruz, S Kane, D Chaukar, P Pai, B Singh, P Pawar
April-June 2011, 48(2):234-239
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82894  PMID:21768673
Aim: Being a tertiary referral center, we encounter the highest number of oral cancer patients in India, and there is direct involvement of the jaw bone in approximately 40% of these cases. There are no large case series from the Indian subcontinent on metastatic tumors to the jaw bones. With this retrospective analysis, we intend to estimate the incidence of this rare manifestation in the jaw bones in our patients and compare it with the available literature. Materials and Methods: All patients with biopsy proven metastatic disease involving jaw bones having complete clinical data were included. Results: Nineteen out of 10,411 oral cancer patients who reported between the years 2000 and 2005 were included. Breast and thyroid malignancies (5/19 each) were commonest in the females to metastasize to the mandible, whereas in the males, there was no predominant site that resulted in jaw bone metastasis, although mandible was commonly affected. Neuroblastoma of adrenal gland metastasized to maxilla in the age group ranging from 4 months to 16 years. Maxilla was the commonest jaw bone affected in this age group. In five cases, jaw bone was found to be the first site of metastasis. Conclusions: There is variation in the primary site that causes metastasis to the jaw bones depending on age, sex and geographic distribution. Jaw bone metastases are rare and can be the first site of metastasis. We get approximately four cases in a year with metastatic disease manifesting in the jaw bones. Metastasis to jaw bone is associated with poor prognosis.
  14 6,978 621
A comparative study of scalpel and surgical diathermy incision in elective operations of head and neck cancer
V Kumar, M Tewari, HS Shukla
April-June 2011, 48(2):216-219
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82904  PMID:21768669
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of patients following use of scalpel or surgical diathermy in elective skin incision of head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: 80 patients undergoing surgery for various head and neck cancers were analyzed retrospectively from Jan 2002 to May 2005 and divided into two groups, matched for age, sex, stage and histopathology according to the method used to perform incision, i.e., scalpel or surgical diathermy. Blood loss, total operative time, blood transfusions, wound related complications and cosmetic assessments of the scar were compared. Results: The two groups did not differ significantly in relation to patients or wound characteristics in terms of total operative time and quantity of blood transfusions. There was significantly less blood loss in the diathermy group compared with the scalpel group. There was no difference between the groups in wound complications and cosmetic results before discharge and at 1-month follow-up. Conclusions: There is no change in wound complication rate and scar formation even after application of heat during use of surgical diathermy. Therefore, surgical diathermy is safe and as effective as scalpel during elective skin incision of head and neck cancer.
  10 4,739 413
MINI SYMPOSIUM
Cetuximab with radiotherapy in patients with loco-regionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck unsuitable or ineligible for concurrent platinum-based chemo-radiotherapy: Ready for routine clinical practice?
JP Agarwal, T Gupta, N Kalyani, A Budrukkar, SG Laskar, V Murthy, P Kumar, V Narohna, P Pai, P Chaturvedi, AK D'cruz
April-June 2011, 48(2):148-153
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82872  PMID:21768657
Purpose : To report outcomes of cetuximab concurrent with radiotherapy in advanced head-neck cancer unsuitable for platinum-based chemo-radiotherapy. Materials and Methods : Retrospective chart review of 37 patients treated with cetuximab and radiotherapy at a comprehensive cancer centre. Results : Median age of study cohort was 59 years. Thirty four (92%) patients had advanced stage disease (stage III-IV). Reasons for ineligibility for platinum included impaired creatinine-clearance, old age, and/or co-morbidities. Thirty-two (86%) patients completed planned radiotherapy without interruption; 29 (80%) patients received ≥6 cycles of cetuximab. Fifteen patients (40.5%) developed ≥grade 3 dermatitis; 9 patients (25%) experienced ≥grade 3 mucositis. At a median follow-up of 16 months, the 2-year loco-regional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival was 35.5%, 29.5%, and 44.4% respectively. Stage grouping and severe dermatitis were significant predictors of outcome. Conclusions : Cetuximab concurrent with radiotherapy is a reasonable alternative in advanced head-neck cancer patients with acceptable compliance and outcomes, but higher skin toxicity.
  9 4,170 462
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Utility of PET in unknown primary with cervical metastasis: A retrospective study
MR Dandekar, S Kannan, V Rangarajan, NC Purandare, DA Chaukar, A Deshmukh, AK D'cruz
April-June 2011, 48(2):181-186
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82882  PMID:21768663
Background: FDG-PET is recommended as an investigation in unknown primary tumors, but its definitive role and cost effectiveness are yet to be established. Aims: dditional value of FDG-PET over conventional imaging in unknown primary tumors with cervical metastasis. Setting and Design: Retrospective study in a tertiary level oncology centre. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 patients were divided into three groups; 53 with conventional modalities (either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) (group I), 59 with FDG-PET (group II), and group III (subgroup of group II) with both (40 patients). Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity and specificity of both conventional modality and PET were calculated. Association between neck nodes and distant metastasis was analysed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Sensitivity and specificity for conventional modalities was 92.3% and 50% and sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET was 92.8% and 71.4%, respectively. FDG-PET detected metastasis in 52.54% of patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant association between distant metastasis and multiplicity of nodes (N2b, N2c) (P = 0.007). Among all patients with low neck nodes in group II, FDG-PET detected primaries in 12 patients, 9 of which were infraclavicular (75%). FDG-PET added information to conventional imaging in 32.5% of patients and influenced an overall change in management in 38.9% of patients. Conclusions: FDG-PET is a valuable tool influencing change of management in unknown primary with cervical metastasis. It is recommended especially in the presence of low or multiple neck nodes in view of high incidence of infraclavicular primary and distant metastasis, respectively.
  8 3,101 399
Primary central nervous system lymphoma: A study of clinicopathological features and trend in western India
S Pasricha, A Gupta, J Gawande, P Trivedi, D Patel
April-June 2011, 48(2):199-203
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82890  PMID:21768666
Introduction: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is rare and accounts for 1-2% of all primary intracranial tumors (ICT). There are conflicting reports regarding the increased incidence of PCNSL over the last two decades in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Aim: This study was designed to study the clinicopathological characteristics of PCNSL and to access the trend of PCNSL at our institute. Materials and Methods: All the histopathologically proven cases of PCNSL were reviewed from January 1997 to December 2009 (13 years). Immunophenotyping was performed on available paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Immune status was evaluated and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology was performed in all cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were recorded whenever available. Possibility of secondary involvement by a systemic lymphoma was excluded in every case. Statistical analysis was done using χ2 -test. Results: During the study period (13 years), a total of 4715 cases of ICT were diagnosed, out of which 66 cases were PCNSL, which accounted for 1.4%. The age ranged from 10 to 75 years with a median age of 46 years. All the patients were immunocompetent. Frontal lobe was the most common site of involvement. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the histological pattern in all the cases. CSF involvement was seen in only one case. Conclusions: In this study, no significant increase in the incidence of PCNSL was found at our institute. Association of PCNSL cases with HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was not found in our study.
  8 3,303 366
Esophageal cancer in northwestern Iran
A Pedram, R Mahmodlou, A Enshayi, N Sepehrvand
April-June 2011, 48(2):165-169
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82875  PMID:21768660
Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most frequent and serious cancers worldwide, but its geographic distribution is disparate. Northern Iran is known as one of the hot spots for EC, but there is inadequate evidence available regarding its characteristics in northwestern region of Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to describe some demographic and histopathologic features of EC in this region of Iran. Materials and Methods: 166 hospital referral patients from a hospital in the northwestern region of Iran who underwent endoscopic biopsy for the chief complaint of dysphagia or odynophagia, and were admitted with the pathologic diagnosis of esophageal cancer during 3 years were enrolled in this study. Results: The mean age of the patient was 61.8 ± 12.0 years old. Male/female ratio was 0.84. With respect to the site of tumor, tumor was located in cervical esophagus in 7 cases (4.2%), upper thoracic in 5 patients (3%), middle thoracic in 64 patients (38.6%), lowers thoracic in 68 cases (41%), and cardia in 22 cases (13.2%). There was a significant difference among the site of tumor in different age groups (P = 0.021) and different sex groups (P = 0.001). In men, EC usually involves the lower parts, whereas in women it usually involves the upper parts of esophagus. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type of EC in all age groups, but the prevalence rate of adenocarcinoma seems to increase with age (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Demographic and histopathologic pattern of esophageal cancer in northwestern region of Iran is different from its histopathologic pattern in western countries in accordance with other reports from Golestan province in north-eastern region of Iran.
  7 3,141 375
MINI SYMPOSIUM
Cetuximab plus radiotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region - A open labelled single arm phase II study
S Dattatreya, C Goswami
April-June 2011, 48(2):154-157
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82873  PMID:21768658
Purpose : To evaluate feasibility, safety and outcome of cetuximab concurrent with radiotherapy in locally advanced head−neck cancer. Materials and Methods: Between March 2007 and January 2008 eligible cases of locally advanced unresectable (Stage IV) squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck were enrolled in this single arm, open labeled phase II Study. They were treated with cetuximab for a duration of 8 weeks and concomitant RT for 7 weeks (starting one week after initiating Cetuximab) Results: A total of 19 eligible patients were enrolled. The median age of patients was 53 years, all patients happening to be male. The performance status of the patients was 0/1. The location of the primary tumor was oropharynx in 12 cases, oral cavity in 4, larynx in 2, and hypopharynx in one case. The overall response rate (ORR) was 68.42% and the overall survival at 2 year was 84 %. All 13 patients who completed two years follow-up after completion of study treatment continued to be alive with no evidence of disease progression. One patient also remained alive with progressive disease. Conclusions: Cetuximab concurrent with radiotherapy is a safe and effective option in advanced head−neck cancer patients.
  6 3,264 472
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Low risk stage I endometrial carcinoma: Prognostic factors and outcomes
A Yoney, C Yildirim, Y Bati, M Unsal
April-June 2011, 48(2):204-210
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82895  PMID:21768667
Objectives: The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical features of patients with low-risk stage I endometrium cancer, who received adjuvant therapy or followed with observation only and to analyse the effects of known prognostic factors in this group of patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 246 patients (median age: 53, range: 31-77) with low-risk stage I endometrial cancer, who were just followed postoperatively (156 patients) or received adjuvant radiotherapy (90 patients) between 1996 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Local recurrence was detected in four patients, distant metastasis occurred in seven patients, and two patients had both local recurrence and distant metastasis. The 83.3% of recurrences were on the vaginal stump. Five- and ten-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates are 97.6%, 97.6% and 96.4%, 93.5% in the observation and adjuvant therapy groups, respectively, whereas distant control rates are 96.7% and 96.3%. In multivariate analysis, only age and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) were found to affect OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusions: LC and OS rates are high in the low-risk group of patients; however, current adjuvant therapies did not improve the outcomes. Age over 60 years and the presence of LVI have negative effects on outcomes in this group of patients.
  6 3,822 321
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Primary renal non-Hodgkin lymphoma: An unusual diagnosis for a renal mass
Rhizlane Belbaraka, Meriem Benameur Elyoubi, Saber Boutayeb, Hassan Errihani
April-June 2011, 48(2):255-256
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82880  PMID:21768678
  5 3,269 262
Osteoblastic metastasis from breast affecting the condyle misinterpreted as temporomandibular joint disorder
A Patricia, SP Kaba, Marília M Trierveiler, Elio H Shinohara
April-June 2011, 48(2):252-253
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82877  PMID:21768676
  4 2,657 275
Etoposide? Or polysorbate-80?
A Aksahin, D Colak, M Altinbas
April-June 2011, 48(2):272-273
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82903  PMID:21768689
  4 2,525 285
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of scoring system in cytological diagnosis and management of breast lesion with review of literature
NM Nandini, TS Rekha, GV Manjunath
April-June 2011, 48(2):240-245
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82891  PMID:21768674
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) breast is generally considered as a rapid, reliable, and safe diagnostic tool to distinguish non-neoplastic from neoplastic breast lesions. Masood's Scoring Index has been proposed to help in sub-grouping of breast lesions so as to help in surgical management. Aims: To assess the accuracy of Modified Masood's Scoring Index (MMSI) in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions in patients with palpable breast lump, and review of literature. Settings and Design: A prospective study from a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: This prospective study included a total of 100 cases, both females and males, with palpable breast lump, in the age range of 10-80 years, over a period of 2 years from January 2007 to 2009, who underwent FNAC. They were cytologically grouped into five categories as suggested by Masood et al, and confirmed by histopathology. Results: Evaluation of Masood Scoring Index led to modification (Modified Masood Scoring Index; MMSI) by shifting score 9 from Group I to Group II, thus increasing the diagnostic accuracy of the breast lesions. Conclusions: MMSI was found to be a useful, easily reproducible scoring method of breast lesions to improve diagnostic accuracy of nonproliferative breast disease and proliferative breast disease without atypia cases, as the prognosis and treatment of these cases varies.
  4 6,837 538
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Isolated metastasis to colon from carcinoma cervix
M Singla, R Singal, S Singla, P Sahu, S Kaur, YR Goyal
April-June 2011, 48(2):267-268
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82893  PMID:21768685
  3 2,193 240
Primary peritoneal psammocarcinoma - as nodular mass lesions on the serosa of large bowel
Kumari P Ramana, Nuthaki S Rao
April-June 2011, 48(2):258-260
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82883  PMID:21768680
  3 2,808 271
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Stromal differences in odontogenic cysts of a common histopathogenesis but with different biological behavior: A study with picrosirius red and polarizing microscopy
P Aggarwal, S Saxena
April-June 2011, 48(2):211-215
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82897  PMID:21768668
Objectives: The present study was undertaken to detect and compare the pattern of collagen fibers in odontogenic cysts and also to find out if this methodology could be used to predict the aggressive nature of odontogenic cysts by comparing with the odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The collagen in the wall of 11 odontogenic keratocysts, 14 dentigerous cysts and 14 radicular cysts was studied histochemically by staining sections with picrosirius red and examining under polarizing microscope. This was compared to 10 cases of odontogenic tumors using Z test of proportion at 1% and 5%. Results: In dentigerous cysts, odontogenic keratocysts and odontogenic tumors, the predominant color of collagen fibers birefringence was found to be orangish red, whereas in radicular cysts the collagen fiber was of green color. Conclusions: Similar birefringence pattern of collagen fibers between dentigerous cysts, odontogenic keratocysts and odontogenic tumors may indicate that these lesions have a common histogenesis with a broad spectrum of biological behavior and belong to the same group, i.e., are developmental in origin. Different patterns of radicular cysts suggest different biological behavior and a positive role of inflammation on polarization color of collagen fibers.
  3 4,090 548
Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?
K Bhutia, M Puri, N Gami, K Aggarwal, SS Trivedi
April-June 2011, 48(2):220-222
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82901  PMID:21768670
Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap smear. Women with inflammation on Pap smear were given treatment as per WHO guidelines and Pap smear was repeated at an interval of 6-12 weeks. Women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear were then subjected to colposcopy and directed biopsy if required. Results: Of the 420 women screened, 102 (24.3%) women had a Pap smear showing inflammation. Thirty six women (8.6%) had persistent inflammatory Pap smear. Thirty women were subjected to colposcopy and 16 (53.3%) had abnormal findings on colposcopy. Five out of these 30 women (16.67%) had Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) on biopsy. Conclusions: Nearly 16.67% women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Hence, a large number of women with CIN would be missed if persistent inflammation on Pap smear is not evaluated further.
  3 10,378 373
Association and treatment response to capecitabine-based chemoradiotherapy with CYP2C9 polymorphism in head and neck cancer
S Paul, MC Pant, D Parmar, J Verma
April-June 2011, 48(2):223-229
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82899  PMID:21768671
Aims : The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and response in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Materials and Methods : One hundred ten males suffering from locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and an equal number of healthy controls were genotyped for CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, leading to poor metabolizers (PMs) by PCR-based RFLP. Each case was assessed thoroughly for treatment response following WHO criteria. Results : The frequency of heterozygous genotypes of both CYP2C9*2 (27.3%) and CYP2C9*3 (20.1%) were found to be significantly higher in the HNSCC cases as compared to the healthy controls. Tobacco intake in the form of chewing or smoking and alcohol intake resulted in several fold increase in the risk to HNSCC in the cases carrying variant genotypes of CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3. Further, majority of the cases assessed for response (134) carrying variant alleles of both CYP2C9*2 (65.3%) or CYP2C9*3 (70.58%) were found to respond poorly to the radio-chemotherapy. Conclusions : The data suggests a significant association of the CYP2C9 polymorphism with HNSCC and treatment outcome underlining the importance of pretherapeutic genotyping in determining the treatment schedule.
  3 3,101 375
Does extended lymph node dissection affect the lymph node density and survival after radical cystectomy?
A Dharaskar, V Kumar, R Kapoor, M Jain, A Mandhani
April-June 2011, 48(2):230-233
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82896  PMID:21768672
Background : Diagnostic and therapeutic importance of pelvic lymph node (LN) dissection (PLND) in radical cystectomy (RC) has gained recent attention. A method of pathological analysis of LN affects total number of LN removed, number of LN involved, and LN density. Objective : To compare extended lymphadenectomy to standard lymphadenectomy in terms of LN yield, density, and effect on survival. Materials and Methods : From Jan 2004 - July 2009, 78 patients underwent RC whose complete histopathological report was available for analysis. All were transitional cell carcinoma. From July 2007 onward extended LN dissection was started and LNs were sent in six packets. Twenty-eight patients of standard PLND kept in group I. Group II had 23 patients of standard PLND (LN sent in four packets), and group III had 23 patients of extended PLND (LN sent in six packets). SPSS 15 software used for statistical calculation. Results : Distribution of T-stage among three groups is not statistically significant. Median number of LN harvested were 5 (range, 1-25) in group I, 9 (range, 3-28) in group II, and 16 (range, 1-25) in group III. Although this is significant, we did not find significant difference in number of positive LN harvested. We did not find any patient with skip metastasis to common iliac LN in group 3. Conclusions : Separate package LN evaluation significantly increased the total number of LN harvested without increasing the number of positive LN and survival.
  3 2,340 289
A long-term survival pattern for breast cancer treated in a single institution
T Gokce, I Karadogan, C Akçay
April-June 2011, 48(2):187-193
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82884  PMID:21768664
Aim: This paper presents a 14-year retrospective study evaluating the survival rates and prognostic factors of breast carcinoma patients treated in private treatment center in the west coast of Turkey. Materials and Methods: The survival rates of breast cancer patients (n = 1746) who have been treated from 1995 until 2008 were analyzed. The clinical data include age, menopausal stage, oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status, and C-erbB-2 status as well as histopathological evaluation. AJCC (2002) was used for clinical tumor staging. Survival rates were computed using standard Kaplan-Meier methods, and the difference in survival curves was analyzed with the log-rank test. Results: The 14-year overall survival, disease-free survival, local failure-free survival, and distant failure-free survival rates were 77%, 95%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. Early-stage patients had higher overall survival rates compared to advanced-stage patients (stage IIIb and IIIc, AJCC 2002), and early-stage patients had higher survival rates than advanced-stage patients for disease-free survival, local failure-free survival, and distant failure-free survival. The risk for cancer development increases significantly for advanced-stage patients with positive ER and PR receptor as well as C-erbB-2 receptor. Conclusions: The incidence of breast cancer in Turkey is smaller compared to other European countries. Low advanced-stage patient numbers compared to high early-stage patient numbers; and very high median survival times could possibly be the result of the improvement of detection and treatment of breast cancer over the years.
  3 2,883 336
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Multifocal bilateral breast masses in HIV-positive status
K Vaishnav, S Shah, S Pandhi, Y Rathi
April-June 2011, 48(2):253-255
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82878  PMID:21768677
  2 2,971 276
MINI SYMPOSIUM - EDITORIAL
Cetuximab in head and neck cancer
PM Parikh, GS Bhattacharyya, A Vora
April-June 2011, 48(2):145-147
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82871  PMID:21768656
  2 3,309 404
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Thyroid diseases as a sequelae following treatment of head and neck cancer
RPS Banipal, MK Mahajan, B Uppal, M John
April-June 2011, 48(2):194-198
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82886  PMID:21768665
Aims: To evaluate the radiation-induced sequelae on thyroid gland and influence of concomitant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 53 patients of head and neck carcinoma in the age group of 30-75 years (55.9 years). Patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (52.8%) or concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with 5-flourouracil and cisplatinum (47.1%). The target volume included the thyroid gland, which received an average dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Thyroid function tests were done at the start of radiotherapy. Follow up thyroid function tests were done on completion of radiotherapy treatment, at 3 months, at 6 months after treatment, and then every 6 months. Follow up ranges from 3-51 months (median: 27 months). Results: Subclinical hypothyroidism was seen in 4 (7.5%) of the 53 patients. In three patients, the incidence was seen after a gap of 12 months and in one patient after a gap of 35 months. Of the four patients, three were of age ≤41 years and 1 was of age 66 years. In younger age group (30-39 years) patients, TSH shows statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in TSH values. No significant difference was observed in radiation and chemo-radiation treatment groups (P > 0.10). Conclusions: Subclinical hypothyroidism is an important sequelae seen in the treated patients of head and neck when thyroid is in the radiation field. The patients with age less than 45 years are more prone to develop hypothyroidism. Chemotherapy has not affected the incidence of hypothyroidism significantly. Also, the dose of radiation has not shown any statistically significant difference.
  2 2,891 379
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Bilateral cystic pheochromocytoma: An incidental finding and a rare case entity
S Gayathri, BP Baruah, S Kumar, P Garg
April-June 2011, 48(2):260-262
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82885  PMID:21768681
  1 3,747 240
Pleural rhabdomyosarcoma: A rare entity
N Chaudhary, A Borker
April-June 2011, 48(2):269-270
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82900  PMID:21768687
  1 2,098 234
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prostate biopsy findings in Indian men: A hospital-based study
S Sinha, SR Siriguri, SK Kanakmedala, K Bikkasani
April-June 2011, 48(2):175-180
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82879  PMID:21768662
Aims: To review prostatic biopsy findings in Indian patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) attending the Urology department at a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of 119 patients, who underwent TRUS-guided prostatic biopsy, was conducted. Materials and Methods: A total of 119 patients undergoing TRUS-guided prostatic biopsy were evaluated. Age, presentation, PSA, digital rectal examination, number of cores, and final histology were analyzed. Minimum 10 cores biopsies were performed in 109/119 (92%) and 12 cores in 92/119 (77%). Patients were stratified into three groups based on their PSA: 4-10 ng/ml (group I), 10-20 ng/ml (group II), and >20 ng/ml (group III). Statistical Analysis: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were calculated using an Excel (Ver 2007) and online calculators (P < 0.05 significant). Results: Mean age was 67.6 years. Inflammatory pathology (30/119) was common at all PSA levels. In men with negative DRE and PSA > 10 ng/ml, inflammatory pathology was more likely (Chi 4.2798, P = 0.039). Cancer was found in 29/119 biopsies (group I 2/28, group II 3/45, and group III 24/46). Patients with PSA > 20 ng/ml were more likely to show cancer. Precursor lesions were noted in 10/119 (8.4%). On univariate analysis age, PSA, and DRE all showed significant association with histologic cancer but on multiple logistic regression analysis, only PSA (OR 1.03, P = 0.0021) and DRE (OR 8.07, P = 0.0007) were predictive of cancer. Conclusions: Cancer is less common and inflammatory lesions more common at all levels of PSA in our patients. The effect of antibiotics on PSA and biopsy in our patients needs to be explored.
  1 3,093 329
LETTERS TO EDITOR
A novel dressing for orchidectomy in prostate cancer
SK Jariwala
April-June 2011, 48(2):270-272
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82902  PMID:21768688
  - 5,640 237
Successful outcome of pregnancy in a case of essential thrombocytosis treated with hydroxyurea
A Eishi Oskuie, N Valizadeh
April-June 2011, 48(2):268-269
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82898  PMID:21768686
  - 2,631 284
B-cell lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue: A rare lymphoma of lung
ML Wani, AM Dar, MA Bhat, I Irshad, Nayeem-ul-Hassan
April-June 2011, 48(2):273-274
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82905  PMID:21768690
  - 2,100 246
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of kidney with tumor thrombus extending up to right atrium
AV Ashturkar, GS Pathak, SD Deshmukh, RS Neve
April-June 2011, 48(2):274-276
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82906  PMID:21768691
  - 2,231 244
Atypical solitary enchondroma of radius
PG Vijay, A Asharaf, U Jayaprakash
April-June 2011, 48(2):276-277
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82907  PMID:21768692
  - 2,621 249
Implant retained prosthetic rehabilitation in the case of histiocytosis X of the mandible
KP Dholam, HA Pusalkar, KH Kapadia
April-June 2011, 48(2):262-264
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82888  PMID:21768682
  - 2,848 254
Leukemia with malaria: An unusual presentation
N Thapliyal, V Rawat, S Singh, RS Jha
April-June 2011, 48(2):264-265
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82889  PMID:21768683
  - 3,472 274
An unusual case of squamous cell carcinoma of lung with metastases to the heart
A Mehta, S Gupta, S Muhammad
April-June 2011, 48(2):266-267
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82892  PMID:21768684
  - 1,821 228
Delayed intracerebral radiation necrosis occurring a decade after conventional radiotherapy in a patient of diffuse astrocytoma
AD Banerjee, P Pandey, ID Bhagavatulla
April-June 2011, 48(2):256-258
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82881  PMID:21768679
  - 2,994 265
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Management of primary and metastatic triple negative breast cancer: Perceptions of oncologists from India
PM Parikh, S Gupta, B Parikh, BK Smruti, J Issrani, S Topiwala, C Goswami, GS Bhattacharya, T Sen, JS Sekhon, H Malhotra, S Nag, RT Chacko, K Babu Govind, T Raja, AK Vaid, DC Doval, S Gupta, PK Das
April-June 2011, 48(2):158-164
DOI:10.4103/0019-509X.82874  PMID:21768659
Background: In order to document the understanding of current evidence for the management of triple negative breast cancer and application of this knowledge in daily practice, we conducted an interactive survey of practicing Indian oncologists. Materials and Methods: A core group of academic oncologists devised two hypothetical triple negative cases (metastatic and early breast cancer, respectively) and multiple choice options under different clinical circumstances. The respondents were practicing oncologists in different Indian cities who participated in either an online survey or a meeting. The participants electronically chose their preferred option based on their everyday practice. Results: A total of 152 oncologists participated. Just over half (53.8%) preferred taxane based chemotherapy as first-line chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. In the adjuvant setting, a taxane regimen was chosen by 61%. Over half of respondents (52.6%) underestimated the baseline survival of a patient with node positive triple-negative tumor and 18.9% overestimated this survival compared to the estimate of the Adjuvant! program. Discussion: This data offers insight into the perceptions and practice of a diverse cross-section of practicing oncologists in India with respect to their therapeutic choices in metastatic and adjuvant settings in triple negative breast cancer.
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