|LETTER TO THE EDITOR
|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 151-152
Extranodal non: Hodgkin's lymphomain HIV
MM Rizwan, P Gaba, M Zulfiqar, AH Gaba
Department of Medicine, Prince George's Hospital, 3001 Hospital Drive, Cheverly, MD, USA
|Date of Web Publication||3-Feb-2016|
M M Rizwan
Department of Medicine, Prince George's Hospital, 3001 Hospital Drive, Cheverly, MD
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Rizwan M M, Gaba P, Zulfiqar M, Gaba A H. Extranodal non: Hodgkin's lymphomain HIV. Indian J Cancer 2015;52:151-2
Lymphoma in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with frequent involvement of extra-nodal sites, rapid clinical progression and diffuse aggressive histology. We present a case of extra nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with probable multifocal involvement.
A 67-years-old male with no co-morbid illnesses presented with progressive weakness and weight loss over one month. This thin lean gentleman had multiple sexual partners. He was tachycardic and hypoxic on examination with an oral thrush. No lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly was noticed. Serological test for HIV was found positive. His CD4 count was 75 cells/micro L. Investigations also revealed platelet count of 28,000/ml, elevated Lactate dehydrogenase 1226 units/l, creatinine 2.4 mg/dl, WBC count of 7000 cells/microL with 24% bands. Coagulation profile, liver function tests, hepatitis serology, serum calcium and albumin were normal. CT scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis were also normal.
Raised Lactate dehydrogenase LDH and worsening renal function made us suspicious of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) but few schistocytes on blood smear, normal serum bilirubin and serum haptoglobin argued against TTP. Thrombocytopenia was attributed to HIV and patient was empirically placed on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and antibiotics. The sepsis workup, however, remain negative. Subsequently patient started having anemia and gross hematuria. Thrombocytopenia did not show any improvement with empirical steroids. Anemia and leucopenia were also worsening. By then his LDH level had increased to 4814 units/L. He later started having melena. While the upper G.I endoscopy was unremarkable, colonoscopy revealed erythematous caecum. Bone marrow biopsy was planned to evaluate for deteriorating blood counts but patient refused. His condition deteriorated and he passed away in the next few days. No autopsy was performed on family's request. Biopsy results of colonoscopy were received after the death of patient. There was dense atypical lymphoid infiltrate in the lamina propria of ceacum. Immunohistochemistry was positive for CD20, CD10 and Leukocyte common antige (LCA). The overall morphological features and immunohistochemical staining pattern was consistent with a diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3].
|Figure 1: High magnification showing medium to large sized lymphocytes with dispersed chromatins|
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|Figure 2: Oil magnification showing medium to large sized lymphocytes with dispersed chromatin, frequent mitosis and apoptosis|
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Our patient was a case of aggressive B cell extranodal NHL associated with HIV. Although the extranodal spread primarily involved the gastrointestinal system but rapidly evolving pancytopenia points toward bone marrow involvement as well.
HIV associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a late event of HIV infection and is associated with life threatening complications. While the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and primary central nervous system lymphoma has dropped markedly since the introduction of HAART therapy in 1995, systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma appears to be declining with a lesser degree. Data of HIV associated malignancies is scare in India. Agarwal et al. reviewed the Tata Hospital Registry for HIV associated lymphoma and noticed 35 cases over a period of eight years; out of whom seven cases were of Hodgkin disease, four of plasmacytoma and 24 cases were of NHL (three Burkitt's lymphoma, four diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of centroblastic type, 10 immunoblastic type, four high-grade B-cell lymphoma [unspecified] and the remaining were other subtypes). Approximately one-third of NHL arises primarily from sites other than lymph nodes, spleen or the bone marrow most commonly stomach, skin, brain or small intestine. Localization of gastrointestinal lymphoma in HIV patient is quite different from general population. Furthermore, multifocal occurrence is noticed in 22.9% of the cases. The survival rate of HIV patients with GI lymphoma have improved markedly with HAART therapy. Several studies have shown that patients on HAART receiving chemotherapy achieve a better response rate, reduced risk of opportunistic infections and prolonged survival as compared to patients on chemotherapy alone.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]