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  Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 489

Arsenic contamination in Thai Ayurveda products and cancer risk estimation

1 Sanitation 1 Medical Academic Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Hainan Medical University, China; Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia; Joseph Ayobabalola University, Osun State, Nigeria; Dr. DY Patil Medical University, Pimpri, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication10-Mar-2016

Correspondence Address:
B Joob
Sanitation 1 Medical Academic Center, Bangkok
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.178445

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How to cite this article:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Arsenic contamination in Thai Ayurveda products and cancer risk estimation. Indian J Cancer 2015;52:489

How to cite this URL:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Arsenic contamination in Thai Ayurveda products and cancer risk estimation. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Apr 17];52:489. Available from:


The problem of low quality Ayurveda pharmaceutical products is the present concern. According to our report the high rate of bacterial contamination in local Thai Ayurveda products could be observed.[1] In addition to bacterial contamination, the unwanted chemical contamination in the products is another important problem. Many chemicals are confirmed as a carcinogen. Of several contaminated chemicals, arsenic contamination is of interest. Based on the previous report on 205 product samples collected from 8 provinces in Thailand, the rate of arsenic contamination is equal to 0.41% (1/205) and the determined level is 8.7 ppm (mg/kg).[2] All products are the local product produced for Thai business registered local manufacturer. It is legally sold in the market. Here, the authors assess cancer risk from oral intake of arsenic contaminated Ayurveda pharmaceutical products. The standard method as previously published in referencing paper by Wiwanitkit was used.[3] Briefly, individual lifetime cancer risk is equal to the product of “concentration of contaminated arsenic in Ayurveda product × lifetime unit risk factor.” For arsenic, the referencing unit risk factor is equal to 4.29 × 10−3 m 3/μg ( The reported concentration is hereby equal to 8.7 × 103 μg/kg (referencing arsenic density equal to 5727 kg/m 3; Here, the calculated individual lifetime cancer risk is hereby equal to 213,748.8. This rate is extremely high comparing to the risk from intake of arsenic contaminated rice.[3] Nevertheless, giving the chance of the exposure to contaminated product is 0.49%, hence, the estimated cancer risk of a person due to oral intake of any product is equal to 1047.37. Since the local Ayurveda pharmaceutic products are presently widely produced and launched into market, the surveillance and control of the standardization is very important. This result can be a good beginning for emphasizing need for a better quality assurance and quality control protocols in Thailand.

  References Top

Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Bacterial contamination in Thai Ayurveda products. Anc Sci Life 2015;34:179.  Back to cited text no. 1
Klinsoonthorn N, Noodsathapana C, Mapradit P. Survey of quality of Ayurveda product in public health region 4 and 5. J Med Sci Dept 2014;56:40-51.  Back to cited text no. 2
Wiwanitkit V. Contamination of arsenic species in rice and the calculation for risk of cancer. J Cancer Res Ther 2015;11:1044.  Back to cited text no. 3


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