Indian Journal of Cancer
Home  ICS  Feedback Subscribe Top cited articles Login 
Users Online :554
Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Navigate Here
 »   Next article
 »   Previous article
 »   Table of Contents

Resource Links
 »   Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
 »   Citation Manager
 »   Access Statistics
 »   Reader Comments
 »   Email Alert *
 »   Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded195    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal


Year : 2016  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 587-589

Opium consumption: A potential risk factor for lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis

1 Research Center of Respiratory Diseases, Rasoul Akram General Hospital, Tehran, Iran
2 Firoozgar General Hospital, University Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Respiratory Diseases, Research Center of Respiratory Diseases, Rasoul Akram General Hospital, University, Tehran, Medical Sciences, Iran

Correspondence Address:
SAJ Mousavi
Department of Respiratory Diseases, Research Center of Respiratory Diseases, Rasoul Akram General Hospital, Iran University, Tehran, Iran Medical Sciences
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.204755

Rights and Permissions

OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is the most common malignancy, as well as the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Several studies have shown the causative effect of cigarettes smoking in lung cancer, however, the effect of opium consumption has not yet been well studied. This study has been designed to evaluate the risk of developing lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis in pure opium addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed an analytic case–control study with 490 participants. People were divided into three groups: Group A were pure opium addicts, Group B consisted of nonsmoker patients who visited the chest medicine clinic due to complaints such as asthma, respiratory tract infections, and other signs and symptoms unrelated to smoking. Group C were chosen from nonsmoker individuals who visited the Emergency Department due to nonrespiratory problems. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that the three groups were similar with respect to mean age and gender. In Group A, one patient was diagnosed as having bronchoalveolar carcinoma. No other case of lung cancer was found in all three groups. Furthermore, four patients in Group A (5.3%; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–10.3) were found to have pulmonary tuberculosis, as this was significantly higher as compared with groups B and C (P = 0.009 and P< 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although, owing to limited number of cases, a robust conclusion cannot be made, this study can be considered as a base for a well-designed, larger study to further clarify the potential effect of opium abuse in developing lung cancer.


Print this article     Email this article

  Site Map | What's new | Copyright and Disclaimer
  Online since 1st April '07
  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Cancer | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow