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  Table of Contents  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 280-281

Oral health status and prevalence of premalignant lesions in prisoners of Central Jail of Amravati, Maharashtra, India

1 Department of Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology, VYWS Dental College and Hospital, Amravati, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Public Health and Preventive Dentistry, VYWS Dental College and Hospital, Amravati, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Public Health and Preventive Dentistry, V.S.P.M Dental College and Research Center, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication19-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
S M Rawlani
Department of Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology, VYWS Dental College and Hospital, Amravati, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijc.IJC_520_18

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How to cite this article:
Rawlani S M, Chawla R, Rawlani S, Rathi V, Gadge R, Choube S. Oral health status and prevalence of premalignant lesions in prisoners of Central Jail of Amravati, Maharashtra, India. Indian J Cancer 2019;56:280-1

How to cite this URL:
Rawlani S M, Chawla R, Rawlani S, Rathi V, Gadge R, Choube S. Oral health status and prevalence of premalignant lesions in prisoners of Central Jail of Amravati, Maharashtra, India. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2019 [cited 2022 Sep 29];56:280-1. Available from:

Prisoners constitute one of the disadvantaged group as these people are often solitary confined for long duration, and hence, they are socially and economically deprived from the community.[1] Because of this, they are often neglected with little or no access to oral health care.[2],[3] Their isolated environment makes them more depressed and that affects the systemic as well as oral health of the body and problems such as periodontitis become more prevalent.[4],[5] As there are restricted dental visit sessions and lack of mobility within the jail campus because of security reasons, oral health-related problems are common. Hence, the need was felt to conduct the study to assess the prevalence of premalignant lesions and conditions among the prisoners. The National Crime Bureau Report in 2010 suggested that the number of prisoners in the country is estimated to be 3,68,998, whereas capacity in jails is 3,20,450.[6] Hence, the overcrowding, violence, and isolation may have an impact on both general as well as the oral health status of inmates.[7] A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 700 prisoners of Central Jail of Amravati. Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethics committee of presenter's institution, and official permission was also taken from the Superintendent of Central Jail. The data were recorded on a modified WHO 1997 proforma, which included pre-tested validated questions regarding period of imprisonment, oral hygiene practices and dietary habits, Tobacco chewing habits (type of tobacco use, duration, frequency, reason for starting tobacco, and availability of tobacco product in jail), and oro- mucosal lesions. Among the study population, 658 (94%) were males and 42 (6%) were females. In total, 12% of the study population were only smokers, 46.28% were tobacco chewers, and 3.4% were habituated to smoking as well as tobacco chewing. The duration of habit was found in a range of 2–35 years. It was found that duration of habit had direct correlation with type of habit, frequency of habit, and form in which it was consumed or chewed. The overall prevalence of oro-mucosal lesions was 242 (34.28%); 178 (25.43%) of the inmates had oral submucosal fibrosis followed by 52 (7.422%) with leukoplakia. Number of teeth decayed was 370, whereas missing and filled teeth were 178 and 40, respectively. Attrition was the most common wasting disease seen among the prisoners accounting to 324 (46.28%) followed by abrasion 118 (16.86%). The present study showed the prevalence of dental caries in the jail inmates of Amravati as 52.85%, which was almost similar to the study conducted by Reddy et al. 2012 in Karnataka inmates.[8] The prevalence of cigarette and bidi smoking among prison inmates in the present study was 12%, which was similar to the findings of the study by Naseem Shah et al.[9] However, our numbers were less as compared to study conducted in Nellore district, where 84% of the inmates had a habit. Similarly, the prevalence of a smokeless form of tobacco was also comparable to Shah et al. and less as compared to study conducted in Nellore district.[9] The difference in ease of availability of tobacco products in various jails might be the reason for this varied prevalence of adverse habits. Similarly, the prevalence of oro-mucosal lesions in the present study was 34.58%, which was similar to the study conducted previously.[10] This can again be attributed to the high tobacco habit. The most common mucosal lesion was oral submucous fibrosis (25.43%), which was higher when compared with studies conducted in other regions of India. There are various etiological factors for the oro-mucosal lesions, and conditions such as environmental factors, systemic diseases, local diseases, drug reactions, and life style factors such as tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption, betel nut chewing. Other factors like trauma, effects of medication, and oral hygiene maintenance also affects the prevalence of these lesions.[9] This oral health survey conducted in central jail has clearly indicated that their oral health status is poor with wide spread prevalence of tobacco abuse (smoke form and smokeless forms). Hence, to conclude preventive measures to improve dental care and provision of dental health education are necessary to ensure optimum oral health among the inmates. We recommend Oral health promotion through well-structured oral health education program which can create positive change in awareness. Prison inmates should be made aware of the need for oral healthcare and harmful effects of smoking and smokeless form of tobacco. There is a need for building up a sustainable tobacco cessation and a counseling program for the inmates to help them quit tobacco. A provision for a full-time dentist will be very helpful for rendering dental services to the inmates.


It is our great privilege and pleasure to express our sincere and heartfelt thanks to Dr. Ram Thombare for his valuable guidance. We express our sincere thanks to Dr. Lina Chandak for providing all the support to carry out the study.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Petersen PE. Improvement of oral health in Africa in the 21st century– The role of the WHO global oral health programme. Develop Dent 2004;5:9-20.  Back to cited text no. 1
Nobile CG, Fortunato L, Pavia M, Angelillo IF. Oral health status of male prisoners in Italy. Int Dent J 2007;57:27-35.  Back to cited text no. 2
Osborn M, Butler T, Barnard PD. Oral health status of prison inmates – New South Wales, Australia. Aust Dent J 2003;48:34-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Lindquist CH, Lindquist CA. Health behind bars: Utilization and evaluation of medical care among jail inmates. J Community Health 1999;24:285-303.  Back to cited text no. 4
Heidari E, Dickinson C, Wilson R, Fiske J. Oral health of remand prisoners in HMP Brixton, London. Br Dent J 2007;9:18-21.  Back to cited text no. 5
Das S. Report of the Committee on Crime Statistics. SocialStatistics Division, Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi, India.  Back to cited text no. 6
Levy MH. Australian prisons are still health risks. Med J Aust1999;171:7-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
Reddy V, Kondareddy CV, Kondaready CV, Siddanna S, Manjunath M. A survey on oral health status and treatment needs of life imprisoned Inmates in central jail of Karnataka, India. Int Dent J 2012;62:27-32.  Back to cited text no. 8
Shah N, Sharma PP. Role of chewing and smoking habits in the etiology of oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSF): A case-control study. J Oral Med Pathol1998;27:475-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
Uma SR, Hiremath SS. Oral health care for inmates of central prison, Bangalore an institutionalized approach. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2011;17:297-304.  Back to cited text no. 10


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